翡冷翠聖母百花大教堂 Duomo of Florence

暮色中的大教堂, 米開朗基羅廣場遠眺。 Duomo of Florence, viewed from Piazza Michelangelo.

翡冷翠聖母百花大教堂不單是翡冷翠的代表性教堂, 也是義大利的代表性教堂之一。在開始設計和建築時就有意將它建成義大利最大的教堂, Brunelleschi 的圓頂更是膾炙人口,大家都耳熟能詳, 這裡就不多說了。大教堂廣場上還有聖若望洗禮堂和喬托的鐘樓 (這两處在早些時已po上來, 見下面两亇links)。有關大教堂的資料参考下面英文資料或直接参閱維基百科的網頁:

The following piece of info is burrowed from Wikipedia (維基百科-翡冷翠大教堂 Wikipedia-Florence Cathedral):

{The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church (Duomo) of Florence, Italy, begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. The exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink bordered by white and has an elaborate 19th century Gothic Revival facade by Emilio De Fabris.

The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto’s Campanile. The three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic center of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting the region of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy’s largest churches, and until the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed.}

Pictures of the Baptistery and the Dome of the Cathedral have been posted earlier, a few pictures shown below were used previously. However, in order to show you a complete story, particularly to those who have not yet seen them, I included some of those pictures here as well. For the two relevant posts, please click:

翡冷翠大教堂之圓頂 The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence

翡冷翠聖若望洗禮堂 The Baptistery, Florence

翡冷翠大教堂, 右為洗禮堂, 鐘樓在其後。 The Duomo of Florence. The Baptistery is on the right.

從大教堂南面看大圓頂。 Duomo, viewed from the south side of the cathedral.

從南面看大教堂及鐘樓。 大教堂十分"巨大", 不容易拍得全景。The facade of the Duomo and the Campanile. The Duomo and the Campanile are so huge that it is hard to find a standpoint to take a picture of the whole building.

大教堂的新哥德式正面牆是1871-87加上的。 This Neo-Gothic marble facade was added in 1871-87.

正面牆上方。 The upper middle part of the facade.

正面牆上方的細節。 The detail of the upper facade. The rose window and statue of Madonna (center).

中央銅門上的浮雕。 Reliefs above the central bronze door.

中央銅門。 The central bronze door.

正面牆上壁龕的人物。 Statues in the niches of the facade.

壁龕內的雕像大多都向下望.... Most of the statues appear to be looking down at an angle...

..讓街上的觀眾容易觀看。 ...which is a wonderful arrangement to allow viewers from below to see them clearly.

正面牆上的雕刻, 資料不詳。 No info available.

大教堂的南門。 The Door of the Canonici (south side of the Duomo).

大教堂北門上月牙牆的浮雕。 Relief on the lunette over the Door of the Mandorla (north side).

中央銅門上的浮雕。 Relief on the main bronze door.

中央銅門上的浮雕。 Relief on the main bronze door.

中央銅門上的浮雕。Relief on the main bronze door,

中央銅門上的浮雕。Relief on the main bronze door.

找了很久也找不到有關此系列浮雕的資料... I can't find any info about this series of reliefs...

此系列的浮雕描繪一位天使... which depict the same angel...

在不同的情緒狀態的表情... in different emotional states...

求識者教之...please let me know if you know anything about them.

大堂中庭。 The nave.

祭壇。 The high altar. I must confess that I still can't imagine how the dome was built without scaffolding.

大圓頂內的壁画。 The Last Judgment, the dome of the Duomo.

基督在最後的審判中。 Christ the judge.

中庭上的天花。 The ceiling of the nave.

這就是正面牆背面的教堂內部, 中央下面黑漆漆的是中央的銅門。 由於內部頗喑, 下面幾張照片是經過處理後才可看得較清楚。 The wall behind the facade. A single-armed colossal clock decorated by Paolo Uccelio is still in working order. The interior of the Duomo was pretty dim, the following few pictures were enhanced to show the detail.

中央銅門上方的嵌壁画。 Mosaic above the main gate, Christ crowning Mary as Queen of Heaven.

嵌画两旁的壁画, 非常生動有緻, 可惜找不到有關資料。 I love this series of frescoes, but can't find any info about them.

嵌画两旁的壁画, 非常生動有緻, 可惜找不到有關資料。 I love this series of frescoes, but can't find any info about them.

Antoio d'Orso 之石棺及其雕像。 Tomb of Antoio d'Orso by Tino da Camaino.

我知道很多教堂內都有石棺, 但未想到竟然高掛牆上。 I was amazed to see these sarcophagi up on the wall.

這裡有來自各國的摯誠教友。 There were a lot of European pilgrims.

此壁画是英國雇傭兵Hawkwood 爵士之墓, 反映十四世紀歐洲的軍事情况。Sir John Hawkwood (by Paolo Uccello),an English mercenary who had commanded Florentine troops at the end of the 14th century.

另一軍事領袖的墓是Trompe L'oeli of Niccolo da Tolentino 的墓, 他領軍於1432戰勝錫安納. Trompe L'oeli of Niccolo da Tolentino, the winner in 1432 over the troops of the arch-rival, Siena.

一群朝勝者在教堂內唱詩。 Pilgrims sung inside the cathedral.

大教堂內著名的玻璃花窗。 Stained glass window.

大教堂內著名的玻璃花窗。 Stained glass window.

大理石嵌画地板。 Marble inlaid floor.

66

大理石嵌画地板。 Marble inlaid floor.

大理石嵌画地板。 Marble inlaid floor.

大理石嵌画地板。 Marble inlaid floor.

布魯內黎斯基的大圓頂的設計圖。 Brunelleschi's dome.

地窖下布魯內黎斯基的墓地。 The tomb of Filippo Brunelleschi in the crypt.

在登圓項半途上, 有一小閣樓式的空間, 於置很多原來的雕像。 At the top of the arch before reaching the lower rim of the inner dome, there is a small area where these statues are displayed.

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喬托的鐘樓: 我們登上了圓頂的上面, 享受了360度翡冷翠的景觀, 所以在時間不夠的情况下, 就把爬鐘樓的節目留侍下一回。這裡放上幾張外觀的照片。

Giotto’s Bell Tower (The Campanile): We climbed to the top of the dome and enjoyed a spectacular view of the city of Florence, so we saved the trip to the top of the campanile for the future. The following are some of the statues and reliefs on the outside of the campanile.

從圓頂上望鐘樓。 The Campanile, viewed from the top of the dome.

離地面第三層的雕刻。 Statues on the third level of the Campanile.

離地面第二層的雕刻。 Reliefs on the second level of the Campanile.

最下面一層的浮雕。 這一系列的浮雕描画人的創造, 人類的各項活動和癹明。 The reliefs in the lower row depict the creation of man and woman, the beginning of human work, and the inventors of various creative activities.

這 一系列的浮雕描画人的創造, 人類的各項活動和癹明。 The reliefs in the lower row depict the creation of man and woman, the beginning of human work, and the inventors of various creative activities.

這 一系列的浮雕描画人的創造, 人類的各項活動和癹明。 The reliefs in the lower row depict the creation of man and woman, the beginning of human work, and the inventors of various creative activities.

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Bigallo 凉廊: 在鐘樓的斜對面有一座漂亮的建築, 稱 Loggia del Bigallo。它漂亮的建築設計據說曾是當時的流行話題和仿傚的對象。後來很多人把棄嬰放在這裡, 由政府送到育養院。

Loggia del Bigallo: Across the piazza di San Giovanni, the beautiful Loggia del Bigallo was the place where abandoned children were left. They were sent to foster homes.

圖中的建築就是 Loggia del Bigallo, the middle building in the background.

漂亮的建築細節。 The architectural detail of the side of the Loggia del Bigallo.

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