Chiesa di Gesù (Italian 義大利文). The Church of the Gesù is the mother church of the Society of Jesus. Together with the Church of Saint Ignatius of Loyola at Campus Martius, Church of the Gesù forms a strong presence of the order of Jesuits in Rome.
羅馬的耶穌教堂是耶穌會的母教堂, 它與鄰近的聖依納爵教堂形成耶穌會在羅馬的重地。我們對宗教毫無認識, 這两所教堂所吸引我們的是他們教堂中庭天花上的壁画。義大利教堂的天花很多都有華麗的裝飾。但耶穌教堂的天花是非常的獨特, 對我有無限的吸引力。
耶穌會相信圖象有利於傳教, 尤其是對教育水平不太高的教友而言。所以在裝飾中庭的時候就設計此一圖象, 傳遞教會的訊息: 虔誠的信徒會被送上天堂, 異教徒就會被擲入地獄。整幅画利用極佳的透視和用色, 顯示升天堂的喜悅和下地獄的淒暗。尤有進者, 設計打破常用的框框, 把整幅画延伸到框的外面, 與天使雕像一起呈現一具連續性和立体性的3D效果。教堂建造時正是巴洛式建築的開始, 所以堂內裝飾十分華麗奪目。
The Jesuits were great supporters of the use of images aimed at preaching to the less educated believers. Moreover, the construction of the church coincided with the beginning of the Baroque period, the interior of church is therefore beautifully decorated. The most striking feature of the interior decoration is the painting on the ceiling, Triumph of the Name of Jesus, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (known as Baciccia). The frescoes of the cupola, including lantern and pendentives, central vault, window recesses, and transepts’ ceilings are also by Baciccia. Some of the putties are by other artists following Baciccia’s drawings.
It is not my intention to put up this post as a church guide because I didn’t covered all the art works in the church. I tended to overlook objects that didn’t caught my eyes. This post is focused on the amazing painting on the ceiling, apse and pendentives. Should you want to know more about this church, please check the links at the end of this post.
A Baroque facade. 巴洛式的教堂外觀。
The interior of the church. 內部。
The ceiling of the nave. Facade on the right and the dome on the left. The decoration of the fresco was executed by Ercole A. Raggi and Leonardo Reti with Baciccia’s drawings in a way that the formed a continuation between all the elements on the ceiling. 上望中庭天花,右方乃大門,左方為圓頂。
The striking ceilings. Triumph of the Name of Jesus, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (known as Baciccia, finished 1679), depicts the church’s message:” Faithful Catholic worshipers will be joyfully uplifted to heaven” 天花(成於1679), 画延伸框外, 並配合右方窗的採光, 陰影在左方近圓頂處。作者刻意把雕塑的天使和画連合一體。
Some call this illusionistic, the painting depicts Catholic worshipers being uplifted to heaven. The Christogram IHS can be seen at the “top”. 有人稱此表達方式為幻像式, 完美的透視。
The fresco area of the ceiling is not limited to the framed area, but extended to the outside. Judged by the shadow, the cloud is not fully attached to the paneled wall but appears to be partly floating, giving an illustionistic effect. 作者設計時, 刻意把壁画和雕像的各種元素連成一體。
The sculptor Antonio Raggi, a student (associate ?) of Bernini, worked in the church of Gesu following the drawings prepared by Baciccia, who wanted to effect in the nave a real continuity between sculptures and paintings.
While the faithful Catholics are being lifted to heaven, the heretics are flung into the fires of hell. 異教被扔入地獄的情景。
Baciccia’s fresco is considered the heir to Pietro da Cortona in Baroque decoration and much influenced by Bernini. Baciccia 被視為繼承Pietro da Cortona 的巴洛式裝飾大師, 深受貝尼尼的影响。
St. Ignatius in “The Glory of the Mystical Lamb” by Baciccia painted on the half-moil of the apse above the high altar. 祭壇上方有関聖依納爵生平的壁画。
The theme of the dome is called “Vision of Heaven”. 圓頂上壁画的主題: 天堂。
Fresoco by Baciccia. Pendentive of the dome -1 圓頂的三角穹窿.
Fresoco by Baciccia. Pendentive of the dome -2 圓頂的三角穹窿.
Pendentive of the dome -3 圓頂的三甪穹窿.
Pendentive of dome -4 圓頂的三甪穹窿.
High altar 祭壇, 似是十九世紀之作。
“The Triumph of the Faith over Heresy” by Pietro Le Gros is located at the right of the altar. Two figures on the right representing Heresy fall, defeated by the powerful gesture of Religion, while a modelled putto is intent on ripping erroneous pages from Heresy’s book. “信仰戰勝異端邪說” 的雕像。
Triumph of the Faith over Idolatry at the left of the altar by G. B. Thodon. A barbarian king, whom Idolatry is trying in vain to keep in check is at the feet of the figure of Faith. “信仰戰勝偶像崇拜” 的雕像。
我無意把小誌变成教堂的導遊小冊. 遊義大利時, 因為時間有限, 我們只能作青蜓點水式的重點参觀, 拍攝亦以個人愛惡行之, 所以只見一斑, 未窺全豹。對夲堂有兴趣的朋友, 可阅下面的網頁。
Further reading links:
Church of the Gesù official site 耶穌教堂的官方網頁
Rome Art Lover/Gesu