拉斐爾室, 梵蒂岡(二), Raphael Rooms, Vatican-2

註: 都怪自已才疏學淺, 這一輯寫(抄)得我焦頭爛額, 原來做文抄公也不容易。現在累了, 只好草草收場, 過一段時間再來改, 看官莫怪。 Note: I have had a hard time putting this post together, even though most of the info are copied online, I am exhausted now, I’ll call it a day and come back later for proofreading, please kindly excuse my mistakes.

拉斐爾室是梵蒂岡博物館的参觀重點。拉斐爾是文藝復興時期的代表画家之一,  年紀雖輕, 但得教宗朱利歐二世賞識, 聘請為其辨公室和書室的四室繪製壁画。室內本來已有的名家壁画, 除極小部份外, 幾乎是全部被翻新重繪。繪製期自1508至1524年, 拉斐爾於1520突然辭世, 遺作由助理完成。画評家給予拉斐爾室的壁画極高的評價, 甚至有以為是文藝復興時期壁画的極品。

Raphael Rooms, Stanze di Raffaello, are one of the most popular destinations in Vatican Museums. These rooms, sometimes referred to as the papal apartments, were the apartments of Pope Julius II (1503-1513). Although the rooms had been previously frescoed by famous artists, Pope Julius commissioned Raphael to redo the rooms. Almost all of the old frescoes were destroyed and made rooms for the paintings some consider the most beautiful series of Renaissance murals ever painted. The Raphael Rooms consist of four rooms, namely, Room of Signature (Stanza della segnatura), Room of Heliodorus (Stanza di Eliodoro), Room of the Borgo Fire (Stanze dell’incenio del Borgo) and Room of Constantine (Sala di Costantino). The Room of Constantine was painted by Raphael’s assistants after he died suddenly in 1520.

第一室 – 簽署廳

教宗朱利歐二世(Pope Julius II)就任後, 並不希望住進前任教宗的卧室, 所以請拉斐爾裝飾四室作為私人辦公室和書室。夲室被稱為簽署廳是因為教宗在此室簽署各項重要文件。此室壁画以呈現人類精神的真、善、美為主題。室內四面壁畫中, 一、《聖禮之爭(或教義之爭)》代表超自然的真、二、《雅典學院》 代表理性的真、三、太陽神與謬斯的《帕拿巴斯山》代表美、《三德》代表善。其中以《雅典學院》最為人稱道。

Room of Signature (Stanza della segnatura):

The room is so called because it was used by Pope Julius II as his library and private office where papal documents were signed. Represented here in this room are the three noble categories of human spirits, Truth, Goodness and Beauty.  The supernatural Truth is represented in the Disputation of the Most Holy Sacrament and the rational Truth is in the School of Athens.

The supernatural Truth is represented by Disputation of the Most Holy Sacrament.                                                                  《聖禮之爭(或教義之爭)》代表超自然的真.

The rational Truth is represented by School of Arthens, one of the most famous paintings in Renaissance art.                          《雅典學院》代表理性的真.

在文藝復興時期的壁画中, 画家在創作塲景時, 常有以當時著名之同儕人物的臉孔入画, 也有在角落不起眼處嵌入自己肖像, 如 Domenico Ghirlandaio (米開朗基羅的老師) 画 Adoration of the Magi (1488) 時就把自己的肖像放入。雖然拉斐爾並没有說明在《雅典學院》中每一個人像所代表的古人物, 大家就以人物的姿態, 所進行的活動, 所拿的書等等去猜人像所代表的古希臘哲人。然後再根據面部輪廓去鑑定是那一位時人同儕的肖像。當然, 很多人物的身份至今仍無定論。

There are a lot of contradicting info online referring to the identification of the figures in this painting. The “School of Athens” is actually one of a group of paintings on the walls of this room that depict distinct branches of knowledge. This painting is under the tondo labeled “Causarum Conitio” (knowing the causes(?)) which refers to philosophy. Raphael had made no known designation of the figures in the painting, however, commentators have suggested the identities of some of the figures. A lot of them are contradictory while a few of them are generally accepted, like the figures in the following pictures. Names in parentheses refer to figures who have double identities as ancients and as contemporary figures.

Plato (Leonardo da Vinci, left) and Aristotle.   柏拉圖(繪成達文西的臉) 和 阿里士多德

Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 赫拉克利特(繪成米開朗基羅的臉)

Diogenes or Socrates  第欧根尼 或 蘇格拉底

Pythagoras (writing in the middle) Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? (writing, left) and Averroes (in green). 畢達哥拉斯(畢氏定理的畢氏, 中央書寫者), 波伊提烏或或恩培多先勒(左方書寫者) 和回教學者伊夲魯世德(穿綠衣者)。

Euclid or Archimedes with students (Branmante)? 歐幾里得或阿基米德與學生。

Detail 上圖細節

Zoroaster (Left 1) Ptolemy?(L2) Apelles (Raphael) (Right 2) and Protogenes (R1) (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti. 查拉圖斯特拉(左一), 托勒密(?)(左二), 和普羅托哲尼斯(右一), 阿佩利斯(右ニ, 繪成拉斐爾夲人的臉)

Parmenides(?) in the middle, Hypatia (Francesco Maria della Rovere) watching on the left. 巴門尼德(?中間), 希帕提婭 (左方白衣)

This part doesn’t seem to contain any well known figures, I just love the way the kid writes. 此部份似乎沒有什麽名人, 我只是喜欢那小孩書寫的姿態。

Parnassus. Beauty is represented in the Parnassus with Apollo and the Muses.                                                                         帕纳塞斯山是太陽神阿波羅和缪斯的家鄉,旁為九位文藝女神, 以此代表美。

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第二室 – 《伊利奧多羅》室

参觀當日, 三分一的房間被圍上白布進行修復, 所以只能拍得画作的局部. 此室有壁画四幅, 分別為《伊利奧多羅被逐出神殿》、《波爾神納的彌撒》 (封起來, 看不到)、《聖彼得被救》和《里奧教皇會見阿提拉》。整組的主題是顯示神蹟,尤其突顯教皇的地位。我個人特別喜歡《聖彼得被救》, 因為一幅画用三種不同的光線表現, 非常的戲劇性。為何用此主題? 據說是因為新的教宗在當主教時, 其教堂就是聖彼得鎖鏈教堂, 所以繪画聖彼得有突顯教宗之意云云。

Room of Heliodorus (Stanze di Eliodoro)

One third of the room was covered for restoration during our visit. We were only able to see so much, please excuse the limited coverage on the frescoes. The room derived its name from one of its frescoes, Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple. Liberation of San Pietro is my favorite in this room. The author used three different types of light which are very dramatic.

The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, The right side of the room was covered for restoration work.   伊利奧多羅被逐出神殿。

The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila , 教宗里奥會見阿提拉。 很抱歉, 左方的教宗利奧和上面神的使者沒有入鏡。

Part of the ceiling paintings, 3 of 4 episodes of the Old Testament,  by Raphael 此室天花上舊約故事, 拉斐爾作.

“Liberation of San Pietro” represents the Saint, saved from jail by an angel. “聖彼得被救”, 尤幸當日修復工程沒有把這蓋起來。此部份光線有甚佳的舞台效果。一幅画以三種光表現, 戲劇性強.

Moonlight. Note that this painting wraps around the window which was wide open, the blue light was actually caused by the light from the window.

S. Pietro being rescued by an angel. 此圖示天使發光. 左圖示守衛在月色下呼呼大睡. 右下角的淺藍光並非画作而实際是右方窗子透入的光.

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第三室 -《 波哥大火》室

此室原用於教宗與其他高層開會之用, 後改為飯廳。主題波哥大火災是描述公元847年在聖彼得(St. Peter’s) 教堂附近的一場大火, 災民扶老携幼逃生的場景, 大火最後在教宗里奧的祈禱下被撲滅的奇蹟。另一幅為沃斯提亞戰役, 歌頌教宗里奧IV的海軍勝利。有說原來画中教宗是以朱歐亞二世為本, 但朱歐亞二世逝世後, 繼任的里奧IV請拉斐爾改為其夲人云云。繪画此室壁画年間, 拉斐爾兼任聖伯祿(St. Peter’s) 教堂的建築師, 所以在設計了《波哥大火災》後只画了一部份就交給助理完成, 其餘亦然.

有人提出一有趣的觀察: 如果將第一、第二和第三室的人物的線條比較, 人物漸漸由柔美变成粗壯, 有人認為這是拉裴爾受米開朗基羅在西斯汀教堂的人物所影响. 有趣的是此两画家不和, 而且米開朗基羅在西斯汀教堂的保密十分嚴密, 拉裴爾如何看到還是個謎。

Room of the Borgo Fire (Stanza dell’incendio del Borgo)

The Fire in the Borgo depicts an inferno took place in Borgo, Rome near St. Peter’s Basilica. The fire was contained by Pope Leo IV with a miracle. During the painting of this room, Raphael took up new responsibilities as the chief architect of the new St Peter’s Basilica. He designed and started the Fire in the Borgo, his assistant finished the job. He also entrusted the other paintings to his assistants.

The Coloration of Charlemagne 查理大帝加冠.

Fire in the Borgo. 波哥大火災.

The Battle of Ostia. 沃斯提亞戰役,歌頌教宗里奥IV的海軍勝利。

Detail – The Battle of Ostia.沃斯提亞戰役細節一

The Battle of Ostia – detail. 沃斯提亞戰役細節ニ

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第四室 – 《康士旦丁》室

康士旦丁是第一位正式接受天主教的羅馬君主, 此室画作就以此為主題,  強調天主教戰勝異教。画作分別為《十字架顯聖》, 《康士旦丁受洗》, 《米橋戰役》 和 《羅馬的奉獻》。拉菲爾只参加早期的規画, 尤其在突然馳世後, 所有的画都由助理完成。

Room of Constantine (Sala di Costantino)

Named after the Roman Emperor Constantine who was the first Roman emperor to officially embraced Christianity. The theme of this room is therefore dedicated to the victory of Christianity over paganism. The sudden death of Raphael left all the works to his assistants, Giulio Romano, Gianfrancesco Penni and Raffaellino del Colle.

Vision of the Cross. 《十字架顯聖》- 康士旦丁在米橋向士兵訓話, 天際突出現十字架.

Baptism of Constantine. 《康士旦丁受洗》

The painting on the ceiling depicting the defeat of paganism. 天花上不知名的画, 顯示天主教戰勝異教。

Panoramic view of the Battle at the Mivian Bridge. 米橋戰役全景。

The Battle at the Mivian Bridge. 《米橋戰役》放大圖。

Detail – The Battle at Milvian Bridge.  《米橋戰役》 細節。

Donation of Rome which recounts the story of Constantine’s gift of temporal power to Pope Silvester I. 《羅馬的奉獻》

Room of Constantine  康士旦丁室一瞥.

想知道多一點, 請按下面:  For more info:

Wikipedia – Raphael Rooms  維基百科 – 拉斐爾室

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