日本武士甲冑 -3 Samurai Armor -3

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用LX7全景模式在弱光下拍牆上的[三条殿夜討の卷] (局部)。Panorama mode to capture the scroll on wall.

日本武士甲冑 (Lumix LX7 實戰錄) 第三部份                                                                            Samurai Armor (& Panasonic Lumix LX7 field test) Part 3

夜襲三条殿 Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace 三条殿夜討の卷

所有照片以 P 模式拍攝, ISO=400, 快門多在1/15 至1/60秒, 光圈 1.4-4 之間。部份照片用Picasa 稍調對比和放大, 效果尚稱滿意。All pictures were taken with a Lumix LX7, ISO=400, shutter speed mostly around 1/15-1/60 sec while aperture was between 1.4-4. Minor adjustment, mainly increase of contrast and cropping, were performed with Picasa.

展覽廳牆上掛有[平治物語絵卷]其中的[三条殿夜討の卷]的複製画。[平治物語絵卷]共有五卷, 分藏東京博物館等地,[三条殿夜討の卷] 乃波士頓美術館所藏, 咸認此卷乃全画之高潮。画成於十三世紀鐮倉時代, 屬大和绘 (Yamato-e) 風格。大和絵據說是沿自唐風而成於平安時代。画中描繪1159年12月9日夜裡源義朝(Minamoto no Yoshitomo) 與藤原信賴(Fujiwara Nobuyori) 領車突襲三条東殿 (sanjo higashidono), 控制了後白河天皇(Go-shirakawa Tennō)。此圖對當時武士所穿的甲胄有詳細的描繪。

An enlarged replicate of a famous scroll (Night Attack on Sanjo Palace) is displayed on the wall of the exhibition wall. The commentary doesn’t mention any detail of the scroll except that it was painted in Kamakura period, 2nd half of 13th century. However, I have learned online that this scroll represents a masterpiece of “Yamato-e” style which was inspired by Tang Dynasty painting and fully developed by Heian period. The five scrolls (segments?) of the original scroll are housed in various institutes. “Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace” (三条殿夜討の卷) is considered to be the most famous piece which is in the collection of Museum of Fine Art, Boston. This scroll provides a rare and valuable depiction of Japanese armor worn during the early Kamakura era (1185-1333).

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後白河天皇被置於牛車內,源義朝(右上角披紅色甲冑者, 見下面放大圖)與一眾武士押陣。Go-shirakawa was being “escorted” in this ox-cart, while Minamoto no Yoshitomo is depicted on the upper right in red armor, enlarged below.

Minamoto yoshitomo in red armor - upper right

右上角穿紅色甲胄者是源義朝。Minamoto Yoshitomo in red armor – upper right.

註: 此卷甚長, 其實是作者(佚名)將幾個連續發生的過程併合成一連續性的場景。故事發生是由右至左, 像是將幾框的連環圖併合, 所以主要人物重覆出現。例如後白河天皇所坐的牛車就出現數次, 首見為禁軍護着, 再見為源義朝、藤原信賴之武士擁入宮廷。源義朝、藤原信賴的形像亦重覆出現。
Note : This is a long scroll and the story unfolds from right to left. The scroll is in fact consecutive scenes of events during the attack being put together. Therefore the main characters can be seen repeatedly. The ox cart used to take away the retire emperor G0-Shirakawa can be seen being escorted by palace police, and later being pushed by warriors into the palace. Minamoto Yoshitomo and Fujiwara Nobuyori are also depicted repeatedly.

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中央上方紅甲胄者是源義朝, 最左邊站立者為藤原信賴, 見下面放大圖。 Minamoto Yoshitomo in red armor – upper middle, and Fujiwara Nobuyori is standing on the far left.

The cart at the palace

中央上方紅甲胄者是源義朝。 Minamoto yoshitomo in red armor – upper middle.

The cart at the palace

最左邊站立者為藤原信賴。Fujiwara Nobuyori – standing on the far left.

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後白河天皇(Gō-shirakawa Tennō)坐牛車中, 左方蓄鬚帶箭者似為禁軍。 Gō-Shirakawa-Tennō in ox cart. The bearded followers, and dress of the nobles indicate that this cluster of men belong to the imperial police (Kebiiski).

Fujiwara Nobuyori in court robes.

中央穿白色朝服的是藤原信賴, 見下面放大圖。Fujiwara Nobuyori in court robes, see enlargement below.

Fujiwara Bobuyori in court robes.

中央穿白色朝服的是藤原信賴。 Fujiwara Nobuyori (middle) in court robes.

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此圖顯示两有趣地方, 其一, 步卒赤足無護脛; 其二, 額與頰帶有名為はつぶり(hatsumuri )的護具, 十四世紀已由hoate 替代。   These two foot soldiers wear hatsumuri (はつぶり)which protects the forehead and cheeks. It was superseded in the 14th century by hoate, a neck guard.

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三条殿護衛軍首級為源義朝軍示眾。The heads of courtiers are being displayed.

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右方武僧(剃頭者)旁黑衣武士帶有名為eboshi 之軟帽, 用粗布帶緊繫, 頭盔可套其上。    Note the warrior on the right of the monk (warrior priest) is wearing a soft cap called eboshi, bound by thick cloth, is said to have served as helmet liner.

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武士雖備太刀, 惟除近博外, 較多用功箭。 Bows appears to have been used more as shown in this and the following pictures.

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此處是本卷少數看到用太刀或小太刀的地方。 Swords appear to have been less commonly used than bows except for hand-to-hand combat or, in this case, decapitating prostrate prisoners.

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Battle scene on folding screen – MFA Commentary : [Folding Screen with the Battle of the Uji River]. This folding screen depicts a famous scene from the Genpei War (1180-85) between the Taira (Heike) and Minamoto (Genji) clans. Here two warriors challenge each other to see who will make it across the tumultuous Uji River first. The Minamoto commander Yoshitsune looks on. The horses’ harnesses are adorned with fringe and tassels, which are characteristic of the period.]

宇治川の戦い下面是繪於日本屏風上的[宇治川の戦い], 此乃源平合戦之一役。源平合戦, 史稱[治承寿永の乱], 發生於平安時代末期, 1180年至1185 的六年間。是源氏(Minamoto)和平氏(Taira,常特稱平家) 两大武士家族為了爭奪權力而展開的一系列戰爭的總稱。 源平合戦影响甚大, 彰示武士集團權勢之坐大,和公卿集團的衰败。源氏之得勝開創了日本七百餘年的幕府政治制度。

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源 義経 Minamoto no Yoshitsune

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Heijiscroll – Bowdoin (English英文)

平治物语绘卷(六波罗行幸卷)东京国立博物馆 (中文Chinese))

平治物語絵卷三条殿夜討卷(日文Japanese)

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