拼布與顏色 (一) Quilts and Color (Part 1/3)

DSC_1583-3拼布與顏色, 2014 波士頓美術館 (一)

Quilts 原指被子, 英文上Quilting 是指縫製夾層的被, 像夾被、綿被等。Quilting 亦可較狹義的解作製作被面的拼布エ藝。Quilt 由法語 cuilte 引入, cuilte 則由拉丁文culcita 轉來, 原指夾有填充物的布袋。除了在熱带, 世界上各民族皆有製作夾被禦寒。歐洲人喜以拼布圖案製作美觀的被面, 在縫衣車發明前, 這是全手功一針一線的製作。美術館這次拼布展大部份都是賓夕凡尼亞州 阿米什人Amish 或 門諾會眾Mennonite 人的製作, 很多成於一個世紀前。拼布的設計多樣, 在圖案和顏色的應用上多彩繽紛, 大大的超出我的預期。

DSC_1408-2Quilts and Color, 2014 MFA (Part 1)

To save energy, I’ve just copied this paragraph from MFA Boston’s website, I believe they wouldn’t mind my using it to promote their exhibition. For further info, please check their website: http://www.mfa.org/exhibitions/quilts-and-color

[“Quilts and Color” celebrates the vibrant color palette and inventive design seen in the acclaimed Pilgrim/Roy Quilt Collection. The exhibition features nearly 60 distinctive quilts from the renowned collection and is the first to explore how, over five decades, trained artists Paul Pilgrim and Gerald Roy searched out and collected quilts with bold, eye-popping designs that echoed the work of mid-20th century Abstract Expressionist and Op Artists.]

I was too excited when I walked in the exhibition hall that I didn’t pay attention to their sophisticated arrangement according to colors and other significances until halfway through. There are a number of categories, namely Complementary Colors, Harmonies, Gradations, Optical Illusions, etc.

DSC_1441-2  ↑ ↓ 剪紙, 門諾會人作, 賓州, ~1880。Scherenschnitte 是德文剪紙之意, 剪紙是賓州早期德裔移民的傳統工藝。拼布作者利用紅布剪出剪紙圖案, 然後縫在綠色的棉布上。綠色棉布上並作菱角花紋。紅綠兩色為補色, 用色大胆。

↑ ↓ SCHERENSCHNITTE, Mennonite , Pennsylvania, about 1880. Scherenschnitte is German for “scissor-snipping”. The term refers to the elaborate cut-paper picture traditionally made by Pennsylvania Germans…. The red and green she chose are equally intense complementary colors, so the edges where the colors meet appears to vibrate.

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↑ ↓ 双愛爾蘭鏈 (拼布花式, 見http://www.quilt.com/Blocks/IrishChain/IrishChain.html), 賓州, 1880-1890。傳統愛爾蘭鏈花色有單, 双和三鏈, 双鏈用三種色, 此處大胆用紅、綠調補色而用暗藍色引出對比。

      ↑ ↓ Double Irish Chain on point, Pennsylvania, 1880-90. The Irish Chain…. adapts to the use of strong color contrast in the traditional manner or with equal color values. Here the strength is generated by the bold use of red and green complements with the darker blue, which introduces a slight contrast, but also a directional structure and stability, to the design.

DSC_1616↓ 九宫格, 門諾會人作, 1880年代。九宫格是基本拼布圖案之一, 顧名思義, 基本圖型由九方格構成, 進而可演變成較多圖案。

↓ Nine Patch, Mennonite, Pennsylvania 1880s. The Nine Patch, among the most basic pieced-block quilts patterns, forms the basis for many more complex designs. Each of its blocks consists of nine squares stitched together into a larger square.

DSC_1432-2 ↓ ↓ Log Cabin, 1890年代,  是指用原木幹建成的井干式小木屋, 這是指四方型的圖案是以條狀色带叠構而成。由於拼布師利用不同長度的黑色带和颜色带相間, 做成風車轉動的錯覺, 所以又稱 Windmill Blades, 風車葉。

              ↓ ↓ Log Cabin, Windmill Blades variation, Ohio, ~1890. A log cabin quilt usually consists of a member of square blocks. Each block features a small square of fabric in its center; around it, the quiltmaster sews rectangular strips of different fabrics. By alternating black with colored fabrics, the quiltmaster heightened the effect of “spinning”…

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DSC_1625-2↑ ↓ 羽狀鑽型, 賓州, 1890年代。據最近研究, 門諾會人和阿米什人拼布家愛用的幾何圖形實首用於威爾殊人和英人。門諾會人和阿米什人一向用羽絨被, 在十九世紀始學製夾被和拼布, 相信他們的拼布圖案是向威爾殊人和英人鄰居學的。(有趣!)

↑ ↓ Feathered Diamond, Pennsylvania 1890s. 「According to recent scholarship, the geometric patterns popular among Mennonite and Amish quiltmakers were actually adopted from Welsh and English settlers in Pennsylvania. Traditionally, German immigrants – including the Mennonites and Amish – slept under down comforters. The took up quilting only in the 19th century, perhaps introduced to it by their Welsh and English neighbors.

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DSC_1455-2↑ ↓ 伯利恆之星, 新英格蘭作品, 1820年代。一般以伯利恆之星作主題的拼布多襯以對比色的背景。此作品則托以柔性背色, 而以紅和藍的菱形带領視線由中心往外移, 再回到中心。

↑ ↓ Star of Bethlehem, New England, 1820s. Most Star of Bethlehem quilts feature a powerful central star set against a contrasting background. Instead, the maker of this quilt chose a fashionable brown-and-beige furnishing fabric. The red and blue diamonds draw the eye out from the center and then in back again.

DSC_1458-2DSC_1464-2↑ ↓ 黃籃子。1920-30年代。此拼布最大的特點是用上一種緞子, 這種緞子在不同角度有不同亮度, 令人看到不停變化的圖案。

↑ ↓ Yellow Baskets. 1920s-30s, New York. Note the reflective quality of the colors is heightened by the use of cotton satin, a shinier alternative to plain-woven cotton.

DSC_1467-3DSC_1461-2↑↓ 双愛爾蘭鏈, 阿米什人, Emma Gingerich 作品, 俄亥俄州, 1920年代。两種用色強度旗  鼓相當, 令两者之間有相當的互動….背景色將紫色中的藍色带出, 令紅色变成較明顯的顏色。

↑↓ Double Irish Chain, Attributed to Emma Gingerich, Amish, Ohio, 1920s. The equal intensities and close values of the two colors used in this quilt allow for a great deal of color interaction…. the background draws the blue out of the purple, allowing the red to become more apparent.

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More info: 資料

拼布與顏色展   Quilts and Color, MFA Boston

拼布花式   Irish Chain

 

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