安大略博物館的三鋪元代寺觀壁画(一) Three Chinese Frescoes in Royal Ontario Museum (1)

11m11cm x 5m 21.6cm

11m 11cm  x  5m 21.6cm

皇家安大略博物館的三鋪元代寺觀壁画(一) – 彌勒佛說法圖                                                 The Three Yuan Dynasty Chinese Frescoes in Royal Ontario Museum (1) – Paradise of Maitreya (Mile shuofa tu)

多倫多市皇家安大略博物館收藏有三鋪來自山西的元代寺觀壁画。據資料顯示, 除了是年代久遠之外, 其完整性、繪画的藝術性、和保存程度來說, 這三鋪據說是流失海外之晉南寺觀壁画中的佼佼者。學者曾將安大略博物館的朝元圖與永樂宫壁画作對比研究, 發現两者類似的地方很多, 甚至很多仙班人物的造型可能是出自同一粉本云云。我一直都想去永樂宮看看, 可是千山萬水不要說, 據說那裡為了”保護文物”, 連電力都没接上(?), 當然就没有照明和環境控制, 最令人郤步的是”禁止攝影”, 就算不用閃燈也不可以。我想, 看完後, 還未回到家就早變成”過眼煙雲”了。至於同出自興化寺的過去七佛說法圖在被盗賣出國的前夕, 為北大和故宫博物院聯手購回。《過去七佛說法圖雖有損缺, 但整舖保存良好, 現藏於北京故宫保和殿西廡內,不過, 似乎並没有對外開放; 縱然有,想亦是受”保護”之列。相對來說, 多倫多市皇家安大略博物館的觀賞環境可說是相當理想, 遊客密度低, 且可以盡情拍照, 回到家拿着書對着照片看, 不但不會變成”過眼煙雲”,反而還加深了認識, 真的是其樂無窮。順便一提, 我是如假包換的門外漢, 只是對美術有興趣, 為滿足好奇, 做了點功課,留待日後重溫之用, 錯漏難免。還有, 年老體倦, 腦力日衰, 本來就不好的語文能力日漸退步, 中文固已力不從心, 英語更是舉步維艱, 語意不清之處, 看官莫怪(雷老師莫怪, lol)。

下面的280°全景照示出安大略博物館懷履光東方寺觀藝術展廳三鋪壁画的位置圖。左方為平陽府某道觀朝元圖西壁, 中為興化寺彌勒佛說法圖, 右方為平陽府某道觀朝元圖東壁。左右末端所見乃三鋪壁画中間所展示的佛像, 多為元代木雕佛像。網上有資料說平陽府某道觀可能是萬聖觀, 原在襄陵縣西齊村。

The Bishop White Asian Temple Art Gallery, Royal Ontario Museum, is well known to have collected three Chinese temple murals and quite a few Buddhist statues dating back to the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). Paradise of Maitreya (Mile shuofa tu 彌勒佛說法圖), a Yuan Dynasty Chinese mural acquired from Xinghua Zi, a Buddhist monastery in Shanxi province, and Homage to the Highest Power, a pair of Daoist murals also from Shanxi province. Standing among these murals are a bunch of wood bodhisattva statues, mainly from Yuan dynasty.  I am going to show my pictures in a series of posts to show all of the three murals and some of the Buddhist statues. I may also include some of the ancient graffiti and conservation info, we’ll see how it goes.

Panoramic view of  Bishop White Gallery.

三鋪壁画的位置圖, 點擊放大。Panoramic view of Bishop White Gallery, click to enlarge.

博物館說明 (無中文說明, 下為筆者意譯):                                                                                                [彌勒佛說法圖。朱好古、張伯淵繪, 水墨、着色於灰牆上。山西興化寺, 公元1298年, 元朝。彌勒佛, 是未來之佛, 象徵精神救贖的希望。此圖中, 彌勒佛在向一眾菩薩和弟子說法。在久遠之未來, 彌勒佛將托生於Ketumati 國, 國王儴佉王和Syamavati后 (註:有說是佛母梵摩越) 聽從其號召, 率眾求作沙門。在此圖左右顯示王與后(註:或佛母)分別接受剃度, 歸依佛法, 捨棄俗世榮華富貴。]

Museum label : [The Paradise of Maitreya, Painted by Zhu Haogu and Zhang Boyuan, Ink and colour on clay, Xinghua Monastery, Shanxi Province, 1298, Yuan dynasty.

Maitreya, the Buddha of the future, symbolizes the hope for spiritual redemption. Here he is depicted delivering a sermon in the company of bodhisattvas and disciples. King Sankha and Queen Syamavati of the Kingdom of Ketumati, where Maitreya will be reborn, heed his call and set an example for others to follow. They are seen sitting to the right and left, and are having their heads shaved to signify their conversion to Buddhism as well as their willingness to renounce their worldly status and riches.]

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彌勒佛說法圖配置和佈局:  對稱式構圖。彌勒佛坐中央, 作善跏趺坐, 左右各有脇侍菩薩。 佛與脇侍菩薩之間有两弟子, 前方有两站立之供養菩薩, 此組人物構成「一佛二弟子四菩薩」的配置。彌勒佛與半跏跌座之脇侍菩薩的體形較其他人物為大, 構成「佛三尊」的形式。左右两組剃度圖, 人物數目差不多, 佈局亦相若, 令全圖對稱穩重。中央最上方有迦陵頻伽(妙音烏, 西方稱之為佛教天使)一對, 两鳥所佔画面面積不同, 且弟子阿難陀右上方似乎少了一片雲, 未知何故, 待考。

Composition: Symmetrical, Maitreya occupies the central position and is represented as Buddha form (in some cases, bodhisattva form). He is flanked by two assistant bodhisattvas. To his proper left is Manjusri and to his right is Samantabhadra. In between, stand two of his principal disciples, Mahakassapa (Mahākāśyapa) and Ananda, and two minor bodhisattvas holding offerings (lotus and fruits). Above head level, there are two Kalavinkas (or Karyobinga, a fantastical immortal creature in Buddhism, possessed of a human head and a bird’s torso, with long flowing tail, some call them Buddhist angels), they are symmetrical in location with different posture. To the proper left of Majusri is one of the scenes of tonsure depicting a ceremony of conversion to Buddhism is being carried out on King Sankha. To the proper right of Samantabhadra, a similar ceremony is being performed on Queen Syamavati to converse to Buddhism. The composition of this mural is generally referred as  “one Buddha, four bodhisattvas and 2 disciples” composition.  Since the size of figures are corresponding to their status, Maitreya and the two assistant bodhisattvas appear to be significantly larger than the rest, they form an arrangement known as the “three Buddhas”.

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彌勒佛+中央人物  The Central Group

上世紀20-30 年代, 中國正處於水深火熱的境况, 國寶、古董、書画流失海外不計其數…甚至大如寺觀壁画亦被盗賣出國。古董商為了保護貨源, 抬高利潤或種種其他理由, 往往没有向買家提供真實的資料, 這使到日後對美術品的鑒定和學術研究構成相當難度。William C. White在其研究報告指出: ” 彌勒佛說法圖人物鍳定- 画中雖然有幾點令人相信主佛為釋迦牟尼佛之處, 但其結善跏趺坐 (註:雙足自然垂下, 亦即西式坐法) , 令人不得不認為是彌勒佛, 雖然有些彌勒佛常有的特徵, 如手持蜜瓶 和作說法印等等都缺如。…… 其他的根據是弟子迦葉和亞難的隨侍和Ketumati 國王儴佉王和梵摩越剃度圖(註:  源於 佛說彌勒下生經佛說彌勒大成經》)更証實此為彌勒佛。”

Identifications of figures in the fresco:[There are certain points that might suggest Buddha Sakyamuni, but the European posture of sitting compels us to assume that this is the Maitreya, even thought the familiar symbols of Maitreya, the flask of ambrosia and the mudra of teaching, are absent……  Iconographic rules were rigidly fixed for Buddhist painting as well as sculptures, and artists were not at liberty to change them. Thus we are justified in identifying the two attendant monks as Anada and Kasyapa, who are mentioned in the Maitreya texts as being present, and the tonsure scenes as those of the king and queen of Ketumati.] (Chinese Buddhist Fresco, William C. White, Bulletin of the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, July, 1937. Revised, August, 1950)

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普賢菩薩 Puxian (Bodhisattva Samantobhadra)

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文殊菩薩 Wenshu (Bodhisattva Manjursri)

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梵摩越后(或佛母)剃度圖. To the proper right of Samantabhadra, Queen Syamavati undergoing tonsure ceremony to converse to Buddhism.

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儴佉王剃度圖 To the proper left of Majusri another tonsure ceremony depicting the conversion to Buddhism of King Sankha .

脇侍菩薩: 學者對這兩位脇侍菩薩的身份有三種說法: 1. 文殊菩薩和觀音菩薩; 2.文殊菩薩和普賢菩薩; 3. 阿僧伽和婆修盤陀。故宫學者孟嗣徽:  “由於所示的圖像標識不明確, 很難確定其脇侍菩薩身份…”。 不過, 多數人接受第二種說法。

台灣和星加坡都有信仰彌勒佛的寺院, 我在網上查他們的資料, 發現他們寺內彌勒佛的脇侍菩薩多是大妙相(大妙嚴)菩薩和法華林(法音輪)菩薩, 完全没有文殊, 普賢或觀音的組合。不過網上有關這两位菩薩的資料不多, 甚至有肯定說左右位置誰屬都已無經可尋了。縱然如此, 我仍會繼續搜尋。 

Identification of Bodhisattva: There are 3 possible combination of identities, according to researchers: 1. Bodhisattva Manjusri and Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara; 2. Bodhisattva Manjusri & Bodhisattva Samantabhadra 3. Bodhisattva Asanga & Bodhisattva Vasubandhu. Most folks believe combination #2 is the case.

In Taiwan and Singapore, the Maitreya Trinity in some temples and monasteries is: Maitreya is in the middle, the Bodhisattva Dharma Garden Grove on the left and the Bodhisattva Great Wondrous Appearance on the right.

星加坡彌勒佛寺院     Maitreya Trinity, Singapore

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各組人物細節: 這鋪出自興化寺的壁画和平陽府某道觀(萬聖觀?)的朝元圖都在1300年前後完成, 作者極有可能都是朱好古、張伯淵班子的一群画師。然而, 在博物館內比對着看, 朝元圖東、西壁都明顯的比較艷麗, 彌勒佛說法圖較暗淡,對比也較弱, 而且水跡頗多,弟子阿難陀和其上的迦陵頻伽水跡尤為明顯, 猜想是興化寺漏水所致(?)。安大略博物館的照明並不是很均匀, 在拍攝時為怕某部份某色過曝, 所以先試了幾張, 決是用-0.3 EV 和-0.7EV拍攝。後製以恢復當時博物館所見為原則, 稍微增加曝光和對比, 但色彩飽和度郤又隨着增加了, 所以將之稍微下調。安大略博物館有一罕有的特點, 竟然”容許”使用閃燈拍照, 我堅持本份, 拒絕用閃燈的引誘, 所以好些照片不是太清楚。

Details of each group:

To my untrained eyes, Paradise of Maitreya is not as vivid and saturated, in terms of coloration, as its counterparts on the east and west walls. This could partly due to the theme of the mural and/or the condition of the preservation at the institutes they had been housed. As research have revealed, the production of these murals might well within a decade in around 1300, Yuan dynasty, and possibly by the same group of artists or their apprentices.  The mural of Paradise of Maitreya appears to have more water stain(?)/discoloration, and appear to be less vivid, my wild guess is that this was likely to have caused by a leaking roof in the original monastery, Xinghua Zi.  The illumination in the ROM is not perfectly even, some areas are brighter than the others.  At first, I tried different exposures and, according to the histograms of colors, used an exposure bias of -0.3 to -0.7 stop to prevent any washout of highlights. Post adjustment are confined to increase the exposure and a bit contrast which, however, led to higher saturation. A remedy was to lower saturation and increase vibrance slightly. All efforts were limited to maintain the original appearance as seen in the museum to the extent of my skill level. The distance between this mural and the pillar standing in front of it is about 10 feet or less, so I had to use a wide angel. As you may well aware that there are perspective issues with some of the pictures, particularly the merged panorama.

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佛身體所具足之三十二種外貌特徵包括: 31- 頂有肉髻,團圓相稱,髮螺右旋。32- 眉間有白毫,潔白右縈  (《中阿含經·三十二相經》), 象徵佛陀第三隻眼, 亦象徵開悟。

As shown here, Matreiya is depicted with mound of flesh on top (ushnisha) and urna on forehead which symbolizes a third eye and vision into the divine world; a sort of ability to see past our mundane universe of suffering.

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無畏印: 右手曲肘朝前,舒五指,手掌向前,即佈施無怖畏給予眾生的意思,這是佛陀為了救濟眾生,使他們能夠安心,所施予的印相。有說此圖的無畏印並不是太典型的無畏印。

The Abhaya mudra (Abhaya means fearlessness in Sanskrit) is made with the open palm of the right hand extending outwards at the chest level or slightly higher.

左手張開擱在膝上 (未知其義, 待考)

Left hand rests palm upwards on knee.

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Maitreya's sitting gesture.主尊結善跏趺坐(雙足未盤起,自然垂放之坐姿,又稱「倚坐」), 盛唐時期為彌勒佛的標準形象, 此特徵為懷履光决定佛陀身份的重要依據。Bishop W.C. White :” There is no difficulty in identifying the chief figure of this fresco as Maitreya, the Buddha to come, because this distinguishing characteristic is his position, sitting with legs pendant, European fashion.” (note: European pose is also known as Pralambapadasana pose)

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弟子: 侍立佛陀身後左右两側為两位弟子, 阿難和摩訶迦葉。两位乃釋迦佛十大弟子中的两位, 常見於釋迦佛两旁, 亦出現在未來佛身旁。

Disciples: Ananda and Mahakassapa. This were the disciples and constant companions of Sakyamuni Buddha, but are mentioned in Maitreya sutras as accompanying the Future Buddha likewise.

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阿難陀(簡稱阿難)是佛之從弟佛陀五十五歲時,選阿難為常隨侍者,當侍者達二十五年。因為他能知時明物,所至無障礙,多聞憶持不忘,堪任奉上,故稱多聞第一。 摩訶迦葉是十大弟子之首,少欲知足,常修苦行, 稱苦行第一,  摩訶迦葉還是彌勒佛下生人間成佛後,佛陀指定的輔佐彌勒佛的四大聲聞弟子之首。

Mahākāśyapa is one of the most revered of the Buddha’s early disciples, foremost in ascetic practices. He is often depicted in statuary together with Ananda, each standing to one side of the Buddha. Ananda listened to the Buddha’s teachings the most among the disciples. He was a cousin of the Buddha. Ananda means great delight. After he became a monk, he took care of the Buddha for 25 years, until the Buddha died. In the First Buddhist council, the suttas/sutras were compiled based on his memory. He lived to 120 years old (Wikipedia).

十大弟子      Principle Disciples

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阿難, 又稱阿難陀, 佛陀十大弟子之一。 Ananda, one of the ten principal disciples of Buddha.

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摩訶迦葉, 佛陀十大弟子之一。

Mahakassapa, one of the ten principal disciples of Buddha.

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供養菩薩:  Attendant Bodhisattva holding offerings.

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手持荷花的供養菩薩。

Bodhisattva holding lotus flowers (offering)

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Bodhisattva holding a bowl of fruits (offerings).

此供養菩薩右手捧一碗菓子,懷履光認為碗形與藍色是仿宋朝的鈞窯碗。

The bowl that holds the fruits is said to be characteristically Sung shape with color resembles the typical bluish-lavender Chun glazed pottery ware (W.C. White).

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迦陵頻伽(妙音烏)      Kalavinkas (karyobinga or apsarases, Buddhist angels)

迦陵頻伽(妙音烏):《 漢典 》 – 迦陵頻伽,妙音鳥也。鳥未出聲時,卽發音微妙,一切天人聲皆不及,惟佛音類之,故以取况。

Kalavinka (karyobinga or apsarases) is a fantastical immortal creature in Buddhism, possessed of a human head and a bird’s torso, with long flowing tail. The Kalavinka is said to dwell in Buddhist paradise and reputed to preach the Buddhist scripture with its fine voice (Wikipedia)

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文殊菩薩的形象,通常是右手持慧劍, 左手持蓮(荷)花上放置有般若經。多乘坐其獅子座騎, 亦有以蓮花為台座。懷履光(William C. White) 的說法: 左手揚起捧着經書為其特徵, 此外, 文殊菩薩通常所持的劍和其獅子座騎都缺如, 唯其脚下的藍色蓮花就是其身份

Iconography of Bodhisattva Manjusri:  Manjusri  is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, ….The scripture supported by the lotus held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, Mañjuśrī is often depicted as riding on a blue lion, or sitting on the skin of a lion. This represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, which is compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion (Wikipedia).

William C. White: …seated on Buddha’s left, is characteristically holding a book in his uplifted hand and his right hand holds the jeweled bead at the end of the ribbon which encircled the book… Besides the book, this bodhisattva usually carries a sword, and is seated on a lion. The two later symbols are absent, but the close-petalled blue lotus-flower at his feet is a recognized attribute of Manjusri.

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the close-petalled blue lotus flower at his feet is a recognized attribute of Manjusri.

文殊菩薩脚下的藍色蓮花。The close-petalled blue lotus flower at his feet is a recognized attribute of Manjusri.

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普賢菩薩: 據懷履光(William C. White), ” 雖然普賢並没有其坐騎白象,但普賢菩薩通常跟文殊菩薩是成雙出現的, 而且其結說法印, 乃普賢菩薩的特徵”。

Bodhisattva Samantobhadra: Known as Puxian in Chinese, he is sometimes shown in Chinese art with feminine characteristics, riding an elephant with six pairs of tusks while carrying a lotus leaf ‘parasol’, bearing similar dress and features to some feminine depictions of Kuan Yin (Wikipedia).

W.C. White did not point out any specific characteristics that identify Bodhisattva Samantobhadra, however, he said”….but as P’u-hsien is the regular companion of Wen-shu, we may assume that this identification is correct, especially as the right hand is held in a form of the vitarka mudra, which is characteristic of this bodhisattva”.

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很喜歡這裡的綫條, 衣紋。I love the flow of the garments.

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************************************************************************************梵摩越后剃度圖: 我特愛两邊的剃度圖, 人物安排錯落有致, 膚色、表情、髮式、服式豐富多變, 所以對各人的身份十分有興趣。據悉, 畫師創作道、佛人物時, 並非天馬行空, 個人隨意發揮, 而是根據長年累積而成的粉本, 因應各寺觀的要求和牆壁大小等客觀條件, 修改成適合之藍本。很多粉本會另存一份於寺觀某處, 以作日後修補參考之用。由於永樂宫壁画與安大略博物館所藏三鋪有頗多雷同之處, 猜想當時應該已有一套肖像造形的規範, 可惜遍尋 William C. White, Ludwig Bachhofer, 曾嘉寳/Ka Bo Tsang, 孟嗣徽等人的研究報告, 两組人物除主角和進行剃度的菩薩和僧人外, 其他人物身份並未有確切的答案, 所以這裡先留白, 以後找到時再補上。

Tonsure Ceremony (Queen Syamavati or Buddha’s Mother) : Paradise of Maitreya is basically made up of three groups, the motionless central group of the Buddha and Bodhisavattvas and the two scenes of tonsure on two sides. The atmosphere in the center is solemn and perhaps a bit dreary. However, when you zoom your eyes to the tonsure ceremonies, the tune has become lively and interesting. I love this group of figures in particular. There are 7 figures in this group, they are different from each other in terms of complexion, hair style, dress, hand gesture, facial expression and even emotion. I have been searching for their identities and the roles they play in the ceremony, unfortunately, I can’t find anything solid. William C. White had given the most informative account concerning these figures, he had even identified two of the ladies as two of the Four Deva Kings, Virupaksa, Guardian of the West and Dhrtarastra, Guardian of East (two of the Deva Kings are in the other tonsure). However, I have not seen any similar description anywhere else. I am still trying to find more information, meanwhile, I just leave it open.

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根據孟嗣徽書裡所列的文獻, 找到原文來看, 包括Luwig Bachhofer, 曾嘉寶和 William C. White 的, 想清楚知道他們到底根據什麼特徵鍳定两邊剃度圖的人物, 不過看完還是不大了了。

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此圖可見袖邊鑲有羽毛(或羽狀飾)。Note the Cuff feathers.

As research have revealed, this Buddhist mural and the two other Daoist murals in ROM had likely been painted by the same group of artists and/or their apprentices. These three frescoes and those of Yungle Gong are said to have shared a lot of iconological characteristics, and therefore been claimed that artists might have used the same set of master copies passed down from generations.

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女剃度這邊的主角人物,學者曾嘉寶, 孟嗣徽和 Luwig Bachhofer 都稱她為佛母, 曾嘉寶, 孟嗣徽的理由不大清楚(在看中), 後者則認為接受剃度者右脇/胸處有一嬰兒頭, 應合彌勒佛下生經所說彌勒佛出自佛母的右脇的故事。可是如果留意平陽府某道觀朝元圖西壁上西王母的服飾 (見下圖), 西王母右脇/胸亦有嬰孩頭一個, 所以, 這似乎與佛陀出自右脇無關, 這可能只是飾物而已(?待考)。

Note the boy face necklace and cuff feather which also appear on the portrait of Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West), west mural (shown below). L. Bachhofer :”.. the cherub that can be seen emerging from the folds on the lady’s bosom is clearly a hint at the birth of Maitreya.” William C. White: [Dr. Bachhofer has assumed that the lady was Brahmavati, mother of Maitreya, because” the cherub … of Maitreya.”  However, this cannot be taken as evidence, for the Empress of Heaven in the Taoist fresco of the Lord of the Southern Dipper has a similar cherub in the folds at her neck. The fact is that the significance of this ornament is not yet clear.]

The boy face necklace and cuff of feathers, west mural.

西王母, 朝元圖西壁。Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West), west mural.

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懷履光指出上圖之鳳旗是王后的標誌。

Standing in the background is a banner of phoenix which was an emblem for an empress.

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手持剃刀者, 額有白毫, 有頭光, 似無疑問是一位菩薩。右後人物, 手捧袈裟, 額亦有白毫, 雖無頭光, 但穿戴與待女不同, 身配胸飾和瓔珞, 手佩腕釗, 似亦為菩薩。兩者膚色泛金, 與佛陀膚色相若。然懷履光 (William C. White) 根據形象學的規格, 認為此組最後两位應該是廣目天王  (Virupaksa) 和持國天王(Dhrtarastr), 與另一組剃度圖最後两位作武士裝扮的多聞天王(Vaisravana) 和增長天王(Virudhaka) 呼應, 合成四大天王 (? 待考)。

The complexion of the two ladies standing on the back look very different, the one on the left has fair (pasty white) skin and light eye color, while the one on right has urna and a golden, warm skin tone which is similar to that of the barber bodhisattva (same as that of the Buddha), may be a bodhisattva herself as well. Referring to the two ladies standing behind the bodhisattva, William C. White has pointed out that “…according all iconogrpahic rules, should stand Virupaksa (廣目天王), the Guardian of the West, and Dhrtarastr (持國天王), the Guardian of East” to complete the set of the four Deva Kings (四大天王)” with the two military figures standing in corresponding position in the tonsure on the other side.

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↑ 懷履光指出, 上圖女仕額有紋飾(非白毫), 頗似唐人仕女圖中的額飾。

↑As William White had pointed out, there is a small trefoil ornament in her forehead, as seen on foreheads of court ladies in Tang Dynasty paintings.
DSC_3079↑ 上圖女仕手捧金盆, 上有王后(或佛母)之后冠(或頭飾), 有趣的是此女亦带有類似頭飾, 似是王后(或佛母) 的侍女。

↑ This lady is holding a golden platter with what believed to be the Queen’s headdress. She is wearing a similar type of headdress which is unique to the group other than the Queen. Interestingly, she does not have urna or ornament on her forehead.

5我的觀察: 此組七個人物, 根據表情可分為两組 – 女剃度者目光雖凝重, 但態度詳和, 有白毫的两位, 狀似菩薩, 態度安詳。左邊四位, 無論服式、膚色, 皆柳眉倒鎖, 呈焦慮不安之狀, 這些恐怕是跟王后(或佛母)有直接関係的人物。

In terms of facial expression, I have noticed that there are two groups: The Queen seems content with the tonsuring, the two bodhisattva, presumably those with urna, are also calm. The four ladies on the left, whoever they are, appear in distress.
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儴佉王剃度圖:  這一組人物的配置與前一組相若, 只是多了一承繼王位的子嗣(千子只留其一, 其餘與八萬四千眾隨儴佉王出家)。此組除儴佉王、王子和替王剃度的僧人外, 其他人物的身份亦無明確的鍳定。不過, 懷履光 則認為最後作武士裝扮的两人可能是多聞天王(Vaisravana) 和增長天王(Virudhaka)。

Tonsure ceremony: King Sankha. This group of figures is also very interesting too. Again, besides of the King, the barber monk and the crown prince, the definite identity of other 5 figures is still unknown, even though the two military figures on the back had been named by William White as the Guardian of the North, Vaisravana and Guardian of the South, Virudhaka.

DSC_2575-2

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負責接落髮的侍從。 Attendant holding cut locks.

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儴佉王双手摩挲佛珠。The left hand of King Sankha.

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儴佉王千子之一, 左手拭淚, 右手執其父衣袖, 不捨之情, 溢於言表。                                       The crown prince is standing next to the king, rubbing his eyes, obviously weeping .  A trident, which symbolizing the Three Vehicles of Buddhism, can be seen on top of his cap.

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The barber monk (with a tonsured head, left), on the right is an attendant of foreign aspect holding the king’s crown/headdress.

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A warrior, claimed by W.C. White to be the Guardian of the North, Vaisravana (多聞天王/毘沙門天).

更多資料  Further readings:

孟嗣徽著, 元代晋南寺观壁画群研究,故宫出版社, 2011。 (Meng, Sihui, Studies of Yuan Dynasty Buddhist and Daoist Murals from Southern Shanxi, Palace Museum, Beijing 2011)

William C. White,Chinese Fresocoes from the Royal Ontaio Museum Toronto, Bulletin of the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, 1937 (revised 1950).

Ludwig Bachhofer, <Maitreya in Ketumati> by Chu Hao-Ku, India Antiqua – a Volume of Oriental Studies for Jean Phillippe Vogel, C.I.E., Leiden [1947]

曾嘉宝, 山西兴化寺元代壁画《弥勒说法图》浅释, 《文物》, 1990年第3期。

李永宁, 蔡伟堂, 敦煌壁画中的《弥勒経变》 (摘要), 敦煌研虎, 1988年第2期。

Ka Bo Tsang et al, Beyond Clouds and Waves – Daoist Paintings in the Royal Ontario Museum, 2013, Royal Ontario Museum

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2 Responses to 安大略博物館的三鋪元代寺觀壁画(一) Three Chinese Frescoes in Royal Ontario Museum (1)

  1. 圖文並茂,感謝分享。

    太朴草堂
    http://taipuhut.blogspot.tw/

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