安大略博物館的三舖元代寺觀壁画(三) Three Chinese frescoes in Royal Ontario Museum (3)

2

朝元圖西壁. West Mural, Homage to the Highest Power.

安大略博物館的三鋪元代寺觀壁画 (三)                                                                               Three Chinese frescoes in Royal Ontario Museum (3)

這是紀錄安大略博物館的三鋪元代寺觀壁画的第三輯, 如果你剛剛才到訪, 建議先去看第一輯《彌勒佛說法圖》或第二輯《朝元圖東壁》。時間許可的話, 稍後會放上第四輯: ROM 的中國道、佛像。首先,下面再一次放上全景圖, 示出懷履光廳內三鋪壁画的相對位置。這輯是左邊的《朝元圖西壁》。

As you can see, this is the third part of the Chinese frescoes in ROM. Showing here is the west mural depicting the procession known as chaoyuan (Homage to the Highest Power). For more information about these frescoes, please refer to part (1) and part (2). Again, I post the panorama of Bishop White Gallery here to show the location of the three murals.

Panoramic view of Bishop White Asian Temple Art Gallery.

Panoramic view of Bishop White Asian Temple Art Gallery.

小啟: 最近很忙, 本以為可加快腳步, 把ROM這一輯整理完就可了事, 但事與願違。由於對道教的世界毫無認識, 找尋資料, 理清頭緒並不如想像中簡單, 每晚上床時腦袋都是滿天神佛, 加上最近事忙, 所以這裡後半部和隨後的第四輯只能隨便抄抄, 草草收場, 要待明年一月有空時再重新修訂, 請朋友見諒。

Note: To my friends, I have been very busy lately, and I have spent too much time in the Daoist celestial world already. And the more I dig into it, the more question I have, therefore, at this point, I am going to post the remaining pictures and whatever information I have collected so far, you may find them not very systematic, not thorough or even confusing, I’ll try to revise them early next year after I finish the work I have in hand.

A. 《朝元圖西壁》第一部份:                                                                                                         A.   The first part: Leading the procession

上輯提過, 東壁繪有二十八位人物, 而西壁則有三十一位人物和戌神腳下的小狗。東西壁的設計是對應的, 两鋪壁画的相對位置上會出現對應的星辰。東壁為北斗星辰, 以玄武、天蓬為前導, 北斗七星緊隨其後。很自然地, 西壁的第一部份就應是南斗各星辰。前導的是赤足、圓臉、垂鬢披髮的黑殺將軍和两頭四臂天猷、面目狰獰的天猷副元帥, 後面有九位神祗相隨, 由於圖像特徵没有太明確, 其身份有两種不同的說法。

General Heisha: The junior counterpart of General Zhenmu, Lord of the Northern Dipper, General Heisha is the Lord of the Southern Dipper leading the procession. Similar to that of General Zhenwu, Heisha is also a barefooted general with round face and combed-back hair. He is stout, wearing a robe (not black though) over his mail armor. He is also holding a sword.

The first group

第一部份. The first group.

Tian

天猷副元帥. Vice Grand Marshal Tianyou.

Vice Marshal Tian and General

黑殺將軍, 天猷副元帥.General Heisha and Vice Marshal Tianyou.

 

The feet of Tian

黑殺將軍足部。 Barefooted Heisha.

跟隨着前導的黑殺將軍和天猷副元帥, 有九位文官, 由於前導是南斗神祗, 此九位自然是南斗星辰, 與東壁的北斗七星相對應。在網上找尋南斗神祗的圖像不易, 除了民間信仰的神像外, 並無所獲。根據手上資料,這裡神祗的身分大致有两種說法: 1. 九神祗為九天(九野) ; 2. 九神祗乃三台星加南斗六星。

In front of the altar, there are nine deities standing behind General Heisha. They dressed like civic officials. However, like their counterparts, the Northern Dipper, on the east mural, their iconology characteristics are not well established (or at least I couldn’t find anything solid). Ka Bo Tsang and William C. White think (/thought) they are the Nine Heavens while Sihui Meng believes that they are 三台星君(Three Stages Star Lords) and 南斗六星神 (Lords of the Southern Dipper).

1. 九天 – William C. White 在 《Chinese Frescoes from the Royal Ontario Museum Toronto》裡認為是九天, 他甚至根據衣服顏色定出每神祗的身份。曾嘉寶在 《Beyond Clouds and Waves》裡亦引 《呂氏春秋》(Lushi chunqiu)認為是九天 (jiutian). 除了這些書, 我在網上查道教資料, 愈查愈亂。不管如何, 他們是南斗無疑。俗說:「南斗註生,北斗註死。」 楊炯 《渾天賦》:「南斗主壽祿,東壁主文章。」

1. Lords of the Nine Heavens – Ka Bo Tsang : “Nine Heaverns were………..as nine horizontal sectors of space encompassing the centre and the eight directions. These sectors of space known under the names of Balanced Heaven …”, see chart below.     William C. White : “They have also to do with the eight points of the compass, with the addition of a ninth for the centre, and each has colour designation.”

Jiutian

9 stars

九天   Nine Heavens

9 stars ↑ 幽天。懷履光: 西北天。 Youtian (northwest). William C. White: President of Northwest Heaven.

2850 ↑朱天。 懷履光: 西南天。 Zhutin (southwest). William C. White: President of the Southwest Heaven.

234↑玄天。 懷履光: 北天。 Yangtian (north). William C. White: President of the Northern Heaven.

123↑陽天。 懷履光: 西南天。 Yangtian (southeast). William C. White: President of the Southeast Heaven.

2. 三台星君與南斗六星神:  孟嗣徽在 《元代晋南寺觀壁画群研究》中認為跟北斗七星相對應的是三台星君與南斗六星神。孟氏認為九星君中有三人佩有玉劍, 就是三台。據網上資料, 三台者: 上台虛精開德星君,中台六淳司空星君,下台曲生司祿星君。晉書天文志云:「三台六星。兩兩而居,一曰天柱三公之位也。在人曰三公,在天曰三台,主開德宣符也」。這裡, 三台不是三星, 而是六星, 也許我們不應拘泥於此數。

2. 三台星君(Three Stages Star Lords) and 南斗六星神 (Lords of the Southern Dipper). Among these nine gentlemen, three of them are carrying a jade sword, handles are visible on these lords’ left waist as shown in the following pictures. Sihui Meng believes they are the 三台星君. The other six who do not carry such a sword are the six Lords of the Southern Dipper.

DSC_2449-001

 

 

 

←↓ 據孟氏, 其中三位佩有玉劍, 表情嚴峻者為三台星君; 其他六位神態自若的為南斗六星。箭咀所示, 上下三圖神祗佩有玉劍, 應為三台星君。

 

←↓ According to Sihui Meng, those who carry a jade sword (arrowed) with a stern expression are believed to be 三台星君 (Three Stages Star Lords)。

DSC_2850-2-010

DSC_2440-001

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B. 西壁主神: 三位身形較大, 顯示其地位較高。居中為東華上相木公青童道君, 西王母(亦稱金母)居左, 木公頭带冕旒冠, 身穿衮服; 金母亦鳳冠霞帔, 两者與東壁三主神一樣, 皆帝、后裝束。居右的一位主神頭戴道冠, 身穿道袍, 道袍上有仙山紋, 學者多認其為老子。然而令人費解的是, 老子位列三清, 理應坐北受拜, 何解出現在西壁朝元行列中呢? 待考。

B. Major Deities.  From left: Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West) and Dongwanggone (King Father of the East). The identity of the one on right, who dressed as a Daoist priest, is controversial. Some think it is the image of Laozi, the philosopher.

1

三位主神。 The central group of major deities.

1

 

 

 

 

 

南斗登壇上供奉之牡丹。

Altar of the floral offering (peony).

 

1

DSC_2838-2-16

Jade Maiden

11

木公和老子。Dongwanggone (King Father of the East) and Laozi, the Philosopher.

1

↑↓ 老子外袍肩上有日、月圖案; 两肘有蓬萊仙島。                                                              ↑↓ Laozi wears a green mantle, there is a sun on his right shoulder and a moon on his left. On both sides, there are mountains which symbolize the Daoist “Isles of the Blest”.

1

1

木公。 Dongwanggone.

東華上相木公青童道君  Dongwanggone (King Father of the East)

2

手持笏版,腰佩玉劍。Carries a jade sword.

↑↓ 木公右手袖上寫有”大宋治平二年重修特此….” 字樣,咸認為是盗賣者為提高賣價所做的手腳, 不足為據。

↑↓ Graffito from  right sleeve of Dongwanggone (King Father of the East) suggesting it had been remodeled in 1065. It is believed that this was only a trick to elevate the value of the mural.

Ming

1

左袖上的老虎圖像, 細緻生動。A tiger on the left sleeve.

↓ 西王母, 即白玉龜台九靈太真金母元君。懷履光認為是天后, 跟據一般說法, 道教天庭之六帝二后, 並不包括天后在內。

↓ Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West). ….. William White: T’ien Hou, the Empress of Heaven.. she is the goddess of sailors under the name Holy Mother of the Heavens, and is very popular along the coast from Hangchow southward of Canton…However, most of other researchers think this is the image of Xiwangmu.

3

 

1

西王母右胸上的孩像飾物。Note the cherub on her robe.

321

 

1

↑↓ 西王母右胸上的孩像飾物。

↑↓ Note the cherub on her robe, similar to that of the Maitreya’s mother on the other fresco, The Paradise of Maitreya.

1

1

Xiwangmu’s Footwear.

1

玉女。Jade Maiden carries the Empress’ banner.

***********************************************************************************

C. ↓十二元神, 亦稱十二地支之神。十二元神冠上有圓光, 內有動物圖像, 代表人的十二屬相, 地支與天干配合, 是中國特有的紀年、月、日的方法。此十二神袛與東壁五星五行十神祗相對應。

C. Personified representatives of the Twelve Earthly Branches (dizhi 地支): One of two sets of the characters used by the Chinese for a long long time for time reckoning. They are the corresponding counterpart of the Ten Celestial Stems depicted on east mural (please refer to part 2 of this series).

1

 

1

冠上有鼠, 即”子”。 The rat (zi).

1

冠上有牛, 即”丑”。 The ox (chou).

1

據懷氏, 圓光內有豬, 即”亥”。According to White, The pig, “hai“.

1

腳下有狗, 即”戌”。 There is a dog at his foot to indicate that he is The Dog, “xu“.

1

戌神腳下的狗兒。A dog at foot of his master, The Dog.

 

1

圓光內有蛇, 即”巳”。 The Snake, “si“.

1

圓光內有雞, 即”酉”。   The Pheasant, “you“.

1

圓光內有羊, 即”未”。 The Sheep, “wei“.

 

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参考資料 References :

王遜 – 永乐宫三清殿壁画題材試探. 文物 1963年第八期, P.19-39.

孟嗣徽著, 元代晋南寺观壁画群研究,故宫出版社, 2011。 (Meng, Sihui, Studies of Yuan Dynasty Buddhist and Daoist Murals from Southern Shanxi, Palace Museum, Beijing 2011)

William C. White,Chinese Fresocoes from the Royal Ontaio Museum Toronto, Bulletin of the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, 1937 (revised 1950).

Ka Bo Tsang et al, Beyond Clouds and Waves – Daoist Paintings in the Royal Ontario Museum, 2013, Royal Ontario Museum

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