安大略博物館的佛像 Buddhist and Daoist Statues ROM

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這是朝元圖西壁的主神, 佛像就在前面展出。Major deities of the west fresco in Royal Ontario Museum.

安大略博物館懷履光展廳的佛像: 這輯其實是安大略博物館三鋪壁画系列的第四輯,有狗尾續貂之嫌。如下圖所示, 就在山西三鋪壁画的中央, 展出好些佛像和少數的道教人物像, 很多是元朝的, 相信也是懷主教任內在山西搜集的。如前輯提過, 因事忙, 這裡是怱怱放些照片, 隨便抄些資料虛應故事, 錯漏莫怪, 待一月時有空再修改。

There are a bunch of statues are bwing displayed.

Surrounding by the three Chinese murals in ROM, there are a number of nicely preserved Buddhist statues from Yuan dynasty on display.

Buddhist and Daoist Statues – Bishop White Gallery, Royal Ontario Museum

This is a sequential post of the ROM series to show some of the Buddhist statues displayed in the Bishop White Gallery. There are a number of wooden statues being displayed among the three murals. I known little about Buddhist statues, however, these statues look very interesting to me. All the English caption are copied from the museum labels, while the Chinese version is my own rendition.

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朝元圖西壁前的大勢至菩薩。Dashizhi in front of the west panel of the Daoist murals.

↑ 大勢至菩薩, 臨汾, 山西省, 木雕, 1195年左右, 晉朝。大勢至菩薩與觀世音菩薩是阿彌陀佛的脅侍菩薩, 常同時出現在佛的两側。大勢至菩薩的圖像特點是其頭飾中間有瓶飾, 而觀世音菩薩頭飾中間則有佛像。

↑ Dashizhi, Linfen, Shanxi Province, Wood, c.1195, Jin dynasty. Dashizhi (Mashasthamaprapta in Sanskrit) is the bodhisattva of Mighty Power and can be recognized by a small vase in his headdress/ He forms a pair with Avolokiteshvara. Together they often flank Amitabha Buddha in temples.

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↑ 中央 – 菩薩 (可能是觀世音菩薩), 山西Caning, 木雕, 上彩, 1300 年左右, 元朝。    ↑  Center – Bodhisattva (probably Avalokiteshvara), Caning, Shanxi Province, Wood, polychrome, c.1300, Yuan dynasty.

↑  觀音菩薩, 右, 山西臨汾, 木雕, 上彩, 1195年, 晉朝。此觀音像曾上彩最少四次, 最近一次約在十九世紀。觀音與大勢至菩薩, 左, 是阿彌陀佛的脅待菩薩。                                     Guanyin, right (Avalokiteshvara, Linfen, Shanxi Province, Wood, Polychrome, 1195, Jin dynasty. This Guanyin (recognizable by the small Buddha in the crown) has been repainted at least four times, most recently in the 19th century. It forms a pair with his neighbour, the bodhisattva Dashizhi, left. On the inside, it has a dedicatory inscription that reads: “In the sixth year of the Minchang period [AD 1195], the abbot’s attendant Cuan of Nanbuchen village invited this deity to the city of Hongdong in Pingyangfu. Recorded by Jia Yan.”

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大勢至菩薩, 左; 觀音菩薩, 右。Dashizhi (left). Guanyin (right).

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觀音菩薩. Guanyin in front of  east Daoist mural.

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觀音 Guanyin

↑ 觀音, 山西 Zezhou府, 木雕, 金漆, 1271-1368, 元朝.

↑ Guanyin (Avalokiteshvara), Zezhoufu, Shanxi Province, Wood, gold lacquer, 1271-1368, Yuan dynasty.

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↓ 道教神祗, 上釉陶器, 15-16 世紀, 明朝。女性神祗通常會出現在大群道教雕像中。此女像身份不詳, 左手拇指带有班指, 食指亦带有戒指。耳珠穿孔, 想曾带有銅或銀耳環。

↓ Daoist deity, glazed earthenware, 15th-16th century, Ming dynasty. Female deities are often part of larger groups in Daoist sculpture. This gracious lady, whose exact identity is not known, wears rings on the thumb and index finger of her left hand. Her earlobes are pierced and must once have been adorned with bronze or silver jewelry.

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两聖像, 木雕, 多彩, 十二至十三世紀, 晉朝。两聖身份不易確定。衣飾為僧衣, 頭飾(原有冠, 佚失) 為菩薩。頭部油彩雖剝落,相信仍是舊制。

↑ Two saints, wood, polychrome, 12th-13the century, Jin dynasty. The identity of these two figures is difficult to determine. They are robed as monks, but the headdresses (originally with crowns, now lost) are those of a bodhisattva. Although the heads have been stripped of their paint, there is no indication that they are not original.

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← 觀音, 山西 Tongji, 木雕, 金漆, 15世紀, 明朝。觀音坐法作水月觀音狀(觀水中月影狀)。其五峯頭冠似有藏傳佛教的影響(藏傳佛教於十三世紀漸行於中土。菩薩坐騎應原似喀邁拉(chimera), 後前後被鋸掉。

← Guanyin                                    (Avalokiteshvara), Tongji, Shanxi Province, wood, gold lacquer, 15th century, Ming dynasty.

12The five-pointed crown of this Guanyin, who is seated in the posture of royal ease, shows the influence of Tibetan Lamaism, a branch of Buddhism that became popular in China in the 13th century. The mount of the deity (sawn off at a later date) would have been a chimera-like mythical animal.

 

 

→ 菩賢菩薩, 山西 Yongji, 木雕, 金漆, 15世紀, 明朝。

菩賢菩薩

Puxian (Samantabhadra), Yongji, Shanxi Province, wood, gold lacquer, 15th century, Ming dynasty.

衣飾有華麗刺繡, 結善伽跌坐, 即双足下垂。坐騎原為大象。

Puxian is the bodhisattva of universal wisdom and a steady companion of Guanyin. The deity, dressed in a richly embroidered robe embellished with sumptuous chainwork, sits in Western fashion, legs pendant, on an elephant (no longer extant).

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← ↓ 菩薩, 山西 Zezhou 府, 木, 金漆。 1271-1368, 元朝。十三世紀時, 流行用石膏做成紋理, 裝飾佛像, 然後再上金漆。

 

← ↓   Bodhisattva, Zezhoufu, Shanxi Province, Wood, gold lacquer, 1271-1368, Yuan dynasty. In the 13th century, it became popular to decorate sculptures with raised designs in gesso before applying good lacquer.

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↓ 羅漢, 河北易縣, 上釉陶像十一世紀, 遼。在中國寺院, 羅漢通常有十六或十八一組。此像是頂頂有名的易縣三彩羅漢的一尊。此組羅漢於1912年在河北省易縣八佛洼山一個岩洞內被”發現”。隨後遭到偷竊和哄搶….  最後有三尊被砸碎, 其餘的有保持完整, 亦有局部損毁。 ROM 所藏此尊三彩羅漢, 頭部破失, 被移花接木, 榢接了一新頭。。波士頓美術館所藏一尊亦失頭部,據說亦被榢接一新頭, 但似乎收藏在倉庫裡, 未有展出示人。存世易縣共有八尊,分佈於四個國家。

↓ Luohan, Yixian, Hebei Province, Glazed earthenware, 11 century, Liao dynasty. A luohan (arhat in Sanskrit) is a holy monk striving to attain Buddhahood through meditation, in Chinese temples, luohans are usually found in groups of sixteen or eighteen. This particular clay sculpture comes from a famous group discovered in a cave near Yixian in 1912. At least seven of this group have been preserved in various museum in Europe and North America.

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↓ 佛陀和脇侍菩薩及弟子, 大理石, 公元550-577, 北齊。此三部原為一整塊。佛陀两旁各有脇侍菩薩和弟子,頭部以浮雕方式鑿出, 然而身上衣紋僅用平行切入綫引出, 幾乎沒有浮雕一物, 似是北齊特色。菩薩硬飾較細緻, 惟衣物如僧衣般簡單。

↓ Buddha and attendants, marble, 550-577, Northern Qi dynasty. The three parts of this group originally formed one whole: a Buddha against a large oval halo with attendant figures – two monks and two bodhisattvas – carved in high relief. The folds in the robes of all figures are indicated by double incised lines, almost without relief a feature typical of the Northern Qi style. The bodhisattvas (recognizable by their richer headdress) wear the same simple robes as the monks.

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↓ 菩薩, 河南安陽, 大理石, 11-12 世紀, 遼或晉朝。此像面頰豐滿, 下巴肥厚, 是遼或晉塑像特色。此像綫條優美多變, 火熖式的背光, 基坐衣紋上的波浪迴轉, 衣飾綫條多姿。

↓Bodhisattva, Anyang, Henan Province, marble, 11th-12th century, Liao or Jin dynasty. The figure’s full, fleshy face with broad cheeks and double chin is typical of Liao and Jin dynasty sculpture. The jewellery and the robe, with its rich folds and bows, are rendered with great plasticity, as are the flaming halo and the eddying waves on the plinth. Details such as the rectangular belt clasp and the left foot with its realistically carved sole and toes also merit attention.

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← 阿難, 山西, 大理石, 多彩, 八世紀, 唐朝。

 

← Ananda, Shanxi Province, Marble, polychrome, 8th century, Tang dynasty.

 

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→ 摩訶迦葉, 山西, 大理石。

 

→ Kashyapa, Shanxi Province, marble, polychrome, 8th century, Tang dynasty.

 

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↓ 阿彌陀佛, 山西, 平定, 大理石, 公元575-590, 北齊或隋朝。

↓ Amitabha, Pingdingzhou, Shanxi Province, marble, C.575-590, N.Qi or Sui dynasty. Amitabha, the Lord of the Western Paradise, has always been the most ardently venerated Buddha in China. This sculpture, which was once coloured, is typical of late sixth-century style in its purity and refined linear detail. The base is engraved with the names of many donors who contributed to defray the costs of the sculpture, and in so doing, could merit a better rebirth.

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The following is a set of six luohans with, to my untrained eyes, very special carving style and interesting facial features, unfortunately, the illumination is not ideal, to make thing more complicate, a couple of them are situated in front of  a window which making taking a good picture very difficult.

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六羅漢

山西, 沙岩, 11-13 世紀, 宋朝.

簡練的線條 ; 沒有多餘, 不必要的細節, 是非常好的宋朝雕塑範例

Six Luohans, Shanxi Province, sandstone, 11th -13 th century, Song dynasty. A luohan (arhat in Sanskrit) is a holy monk striving to attain Buddhahood through meditation. In Chinese temples, luohans are ususally found in groups of sixteen or eighteen. The figures of this incomplete group all have strikingly individual postures and facial expressions. Terse and without any superfluous detail, the are powerful examples of Song dynasty sculpture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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