2014 京都の秋 (一) Autumn in Kyoto (1)
奈良東大寺 Todaiji, Nara
這趟京都行其實是2008年京都行的續篇。不同的是, 這次不但不再是單槍匹馬, 而是有大隊人馬同行。奈良並不是第一天的行程, 首先把它放上來的原因是因為看了些資料, 要在忘記前把它寫下來。這次基本上仍是以攝影為主, 可惜天色並不太理想, 不是大陰天、下雨就是大太陽, 光線有點極端。另一方面, 由於没有趕場, 行程以少見多, 輕鬆自在, 亦一樂也。
This is a sequential of my 2008 solo trip to Kyoto (to me, it includes Uji and Nara) for magnificent fall colors. The less-than-ideal weather conditions lead to a lesser coverage on my destination list. However, the spirit was high, and we had a good time. Although Nara Park is not exactly the best place for leaf peeping, it was not even the first destination we had visited, I put this up first due to the fact that I wanted to put together this post with the information I have collected before I forget, lol.
對我來說, 此行的重點是看大佛殿。大佛殿(大仏殿) 亦即東大寺的金堂, 內有毘盧遮那佛坐像一尊, 曾是世界最大的佛像。始建於天平十七年, 西元745, 至於當時為何在東大寺興建此十六公尺高的大佛, 眾說紛紜, 下面会稍作介紹。現存的毘盧遮那佛和大佛殿, 已非原構。現存大佛殿重建於1709年。大佛殿雖經重建两次, 比原構的規模為小, 但仍為世上最大的木造建築物。
The Great Buddha Hall (Daibutsuden) has been rebuilt twice after fire. The current building was finished in 1709, and although immense—57 m long and 50 m wide—it is actually 30% smaller than its predecessor.
東大寺位於奈良公園, 園內生活着一千二百頭自由徜徉漫步的鹿, 雖然遊人如鯽, 但彼此平和相處, 成為奈良的特色。除了大佛殿之外, 公園內還有二月堂、三月堂、興福寺、赤城圍、浮見堂和春日大社等名勝, 由於日短, 加上我們好吃,誤了行程, 這些景點要留待下一回了。下面先看看東大寺周邊的景色和感受一下那祥和寧静的氛圍。
Nara Park is home to hundreds of free roaming deer which has became a symbol of Nara Park and perhaps the city. Well, our Bambi friends there can be aggressive, particularly if they believe you have their favorite deer crackers for them. However, Nara Park’s deers are considered to be tame, even “polite”. Some say some deers have even learned to bow for food. Anyway, Nara Park is a good place to spend a day. As a matter fact, it has more major attractions in Nara than one can cover in a day, especially if you are a photographer. The following are some of the scenes we have come across before entering the Great Buddha Hall.
***************************************************************************************大仏緣起: 根據香取忠彦所著, 穗積和夫插圖之「奈良の大仏―世界最大の鋳造仏」一書, 聖武天皇為了政治上和宗教上的理由於天平十五年(西元743) 在恭仁京(今京都木津川市)頒布詔書, 建立大佛。原來選址在恭仁京的甲賀寺展開, 後來因種種原因, 都城由恭仁京遷回平城京(今奈良), 大佛的建設工程亦移至奈良的山金里(即今東大寺)重新展開(天平十七年, 西元745), 行基法師受命為大僧正, 主理大佛的建造。有些資料說是為了安撫聖武天皇早逝的皇子菩提的忘魂而建。香取忠彦的書亦稍提到政治的原因。如果你有興趣知道更多, 不妨看看日本拍的两集歴史劇「大佛開眼」 (見後連接), 雖然劇中加有很多戲劇原素, 但對當時興建大佛的背景有不錯的介紹。
總而言之, 咸信曾有遣唐使或留唐僧曾一睹龍門奉先寺大佛(13公尺, 7世紀), 故亦希望日本能有巨佛, 奈何平城京附近無巨石窟, 無法造出龍門石窟中的大佛。後來選用金銅鋳造, 是希望佛像能長存後世。到底大佛的高度是怎樣定出的? 據說是這樣的: 1. 傳說佛祖的身高為一丈六尺(約4.8公尺)。一般大寺院的主佛像都是丈六佛, 但坐像實際高度只有八尺, 仍稱丈六佛。比丈六佛大的統稱大佛 ; 2. 南大門上的橫匾寫着大華嚴寺, 顯示東大寺所奉, 華嚴經中以十比無限大, 所以原意要作十倍丈六佛大的大佛, 換言之應為24公尺的坐像, 不過當時用的是古代的周尺, 一尺=~20cm, 20cm X 160=32公尺, 坐佛高度折半, 所以奈良大佛高16公尺。
我一直都想知道當時如何用八世紀的建築、鋳造技術去製造如此大的鍍金銅鋳大佛。 據說當時全日本人口才只有五百萬, 而天平年間的日本並不是處於富強的年代, 如何能投入如此大的人力物力建成大佛, 着實令人費解, 尤其是說勞工不是被勞役的, 是領薪的呢。無論如何, 看看幾个主要物料的數字:
熟銅 739,560斤 (499噸) 白錫 12,618斤(8.5噸) 黃金 10,436両(440公斤) 水銀 58,620两 (2.5噸) 木柱 1.5公尺直徑X30公尺長 84+根
光是想想那八十多根的巨木如何被伐, 從山上運至河邊, 順木津川南下….的情景, 就覺得不可思議。再想想為大佛鍍金, 沒有電鍍, 靠的是水銀和火力, 光是鍍金那五年中, 到底有多少技師中了水銀毒… 實在是太不可思議!!
I have always been amazed by the size of giant Buddha images (like those in Yungang Grottoes, 5th cent., the one in Kamakura, 13th cent. and this one in Todaiji), and always eager to find out how did they do it with the skill and technology at that time. According to the book ” The Great Buddha of Nara” by Katori Tadahiko, illustrated by Hozumi Kazuo, the construction of the Great Buddha of Nara was ordered by Emperor Shomu (聖武天皇 701-756) for political and religious reasons. It is said that they (some of them were Japanese envoys to Tang Dynasty and student monks studied in Tang’s capital city, Xian) wanted to build something similar to the massive Vairocana image in Longmen Grottoes, unfortunately, there were no such geographic terrains available in Nara area, they decided to build with bronze.
Wikipedia: 「The making of the statue was started first in Shigaraki. After enduring multiple fires and earthquakes, the construction was eventually resumed in Nara in 745, and the Buddha was finally completed in 751. A year later, in 752, the eye-opening ceremony was held with an attendance of 10,000 people to celebrate the completion of the Buddha. The Indian priest Bodhisena performed the eye-opening for Emperor Shōmu. The project nearly bankrupted Japan’s economy, consuming most of the available bronze of the time.」
In his book, Katori Tadahiko has given a detail technological account of how the Buddha was cast and how the hall was built. However, I must confess that it is beyond my imagination. Let’s take a look of the major materials used:
1. Bronze – 739,560 ‘catty’ (499 tons) 2. Tin – 12,618 ‘catty’ (8.5 tons) 3. Gold – 10,436 ‘tael’ (440 Kg) 4. Mercury – 58,620’tael’ (2.5 tons) 5. Wood – 1.5 m x 30 m 84+pcs
Can you imagine the time and manpower needed just to put together all these materials? Not to mention the logistics support for tens of thousands of workers involved. Anyway, do your math if interested. A two-episode Japanese TV series called 大仏開眼 (lit. Great Buddha Eye Opening, referring to the eye opening ceremony) gives a dramatic interpretation of the construction of the Great Buddha and the Great Buddha Hall (see links below).
南大門內两側有木造金剛力士两尊, 東方為吽形像, 西方阿形像。此乃佛寺之門神, 在中國稱為哼哈二將, 亦有尊稱其為仁王。現在的南大門重建於十二世紀, 據宋朝營造規格。
Kongōrikishi (金剛力士) or Niō (仁王) are two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples all across Asia including China, Japan and Korea in the form of frightening wrestler-like statues. The existing Nandaimon (Great South Gate) is a reconstruction of end-12th century based on Song Dynasty style. (Wikipedia)
賓頭盧尊者 – 在大佛殿的外側, 有一木造坐像, 說明上寫着是賓頭盧尊者 (木造, 江户時代, 十八世紀)。尊者乃十六羅漢神通首座, 以神通著名, 獅子吼第一。在日本, 信眾認為只要用手摸擦尊者像的某部, 然後再摸擦自身對應的部份, 就有治病療傷之效。因此在日本, 寺院伽藍本堂前常奉尊者塑像, 供善信摸擦。
Bizuru – Sitting next to the entrance is this statue of Binzuru (wood, Edo Period, 18th cent). Binzuru (Pindola Bharadvaja) was one of the sixteen arachats, who were disciples of the Buddha. Pindola is said to have excelled the mastery of occult power. It is commonly believed in Japan that when a person rubs a part of the image of Binzuru and then rubs the corresponding part of his own body, his ailment there will disappear.
大佛 – 毘盧遮那佛 (Piluzhenafo), 盧舍那佛, 大日如來 (Dari Rulai, 日音Dainichi Nyorai) 毘盧遮那仏, Birushana-butsu。 下為 Wikipedia資料 :
The Great Buddha – Vairocana (大日如来 Dainichi Nyorai, 毘盧遮那仏 Birushana-butsu ), Wikipedia :
Vairocana (also Vairochana or Mahāvairocana, Sanskrit: वैरोचन) is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Bliss Body of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama). In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Buddhism, Vairocana is also seen as the embodiment of the Buddhist concept of Emptiness. In the conception of the Five Wisdom Buddhas of Vajrayana Buddhism, Vairocana is at the centre and is considered a Primordial Buddha. The Vairocana statue in Nara’s Tōdai-ji in Japan was the largest bronze image of Vairocana Buddha in the world. The larger of the monumental statues that were destroyed at Bamyan in Afghanistan was also a depiction of Vairocana. The Spring Temple Buddha of Lushan County, Henan, China, with a height of 126 meters, is now the tallest Vairocana Buddha statue, as well as the tallest statue in the world.
↑↓ 大佛所坐的蓮花座, 由向上和向下的花瓣層組成, 上面所示是向上花瓣層的複製品。花瓣上雕刻了蓮華藏世界的圖畫。蓮華藏世界就是華嚴經所說的世界。上面照片只示出二十六橫線的中千世界和以上部份。上方坐在正中央的是釋迦如來, 掌管中千世界。釋迦如來周圍伴着二十二位菩薩。下圖是我製作的說明:
↑↓ The petals of lotus pedestal on the Great Buddha Vairocana is seated are incised in hairline engraving with identical designs, dating from the Nara period (8th cent.), which depict the “Lotus-Matrix World-System” (Jp. Rengezo sekai). The upper half depicts a seated Tathagata in the center who is expounding the Dharma and flanked on each side by a group of eleven Bodhisattvas. In the lower half there are twenty-six horizontal lines with small Buddha-images and palaces arrayed between them. Stated simply, this complex design may be described as a pictorial representation of the religious world view set forth in the Avatamsaka-sutra (Jp. Kegon-kyo)
在東大寺逛至下午快三點, 怱忙趕到這裡吃中飯, 都快到休息時間了, 還是有老饕在排隊。
This restaurant is so famous that even when we arrived at around 3pm, close to their closing time, there was still a line waiting to get in.
套餐- 季節の釜めし Season limitation
更多資訊 More information:
香取忠彦著, 穗積和夫插圖 「奈良の大仏―世界最大の鋳造仏」一書中譯本, 李道道譯, 2007, 馬可孛羅文化。
Katori Tadahiko et al, Nara No Daibutsu (Nara’s Great Buddha, in Japanese), published by Soshisha, Tokyo (1981)