奈良東大寺 Todaiji, Nara

Todaiji, original layout with two pagadas.

原東大寺伽藍模型, 迥廊外東西方各有七層寳塔。 Todaiji. The original complex contained two 100 m pagodas which were destroyed in an earthquake.

2014 京都の秋 (一)   Autumn in Kyoto (1) 

奈良東大寺 Todaiji, Nara

這趟京都行其實是2008年京都行的續篇。不同的是, 這次不但不再是單槍匹馬, 而是有大隊人馬同行。奈良並不是第一天的行程, 首先把它放上來的原因是因為看了些資料, 要在忘記前把它寫下來。這次基本上仍是以攝影為主, 可惜天色並不太理想, 不是大陰天、下雨就是大太陽, 光線有點極端。另一方面, 由於没有趕場, 行程以少見多, 輕鬆自在, 亦一樂也。

This is a sequential of my 2008 solo trip to Kyoto (to me, it includes Uji and Nara) for magnificent fall colors. The less-than-ideal weather conditions lead to a lesser coverage on my destination list. However, the spirit was high, and we had a good time. Although Nara Park is not exactly the best place for leaf peeping, it was not even the first destination we had visited, I put this up first due to the fact that I wanted to put together this post with the information I have collected  before I forget, lol.

對我來說, 此行的重點是看大佛殿。大佛殿(大仏殿) 亦即東大寺的金堂, 內有毘盧遮那佛坐像一尊, 曾是世界最大的佛像。始建於天平十七年, 西元745, 至於當時為何在東大寺興建此十六公尺高的大佛, 眾說紛紜, 下面会稍作介紹。現存的毘盧遮那佛和大佛殿, 已非原構。現存大佛殿重建於1709年。大佛殿雖經重建两次, 比原構的規模為小, 但仍為世上最大的木造建築物。

The Great Buddha Hall (Daibutsuden) has been rebuilt twice after fire. The current building was finished in 1709, and although immense—57 m long and 50 m wide—it is actually 30% smaller than its predecessor.

東大寺位於奈良公園, 園內生活着一千二百頭自由徜徉漫步的鹿, 雖然遊人如鯽, 但彼此平和相處, 成為奈良的特色。除了大佛殿之外, 公園內還有二月堂、三月堂、興福寺、赤城圍、浮見堂和春日大社等名勝, 由於日短, 加上我們好吃,誤了行程, 這些景點要留待下一回了。下面先看看東大寺周邊的景色和感受一下那祥和寧静的氛圍。

1

奈良人力車 Rickshaw

2

公園有上千自由走動的鹿. Bambi – signature creature of Nara Park.

3

園內告示。Please be reminded what “Bambi” is capable of.

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我們見的鹿兒都很温順。They are tame and friendly.

在街上賣烤甘薯的女仕穿得實在是太優雅了, 呀, 這就是日本。A vendor selling baked sweet potato is so elegantly dressed.

Nara Park is home to hundreds of free roaming deer which has became a symbol of Nara Park and perhaps the city. Well, our Bambi friends there can be aggressive, particularly if they believe you have their favorite deer crackers for them. However, Nara Park’s deers are considered to be tame, even “polite”. Some say some deers have even learned to bow for food. Anyway, Nara Park is a good place to spend a day. As a matter fact, it has more major attractions in Nara than one can cover in a day, especially if you are a photographer. The following are some of the scenes we have come across before entering the Great Buddha Hall.

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  一位弹着結他的幼稚園老師….Doe, a deer, a female deer…

一、二、三,紅綠燈.   だるまさんがころんだ.   This game is called Daruma-san ga koronda or in English, Statues (or Red light/Green light).                                                 Wikipedia – だるまさんがころんだ(in Japanese) or Statues_(game) or Red light/Green light

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带着學生做唱遊…ray, a drop of golden sun…

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…me, a name I call myself…

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…far, a long, long way to run…

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These kids were in uniform…

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...  probably from nearby kindergarten.

31

  美術家在此寫生. An artist at work.

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Artist at work.

Reflection of the Great Buddha Hall on the Mirror Pond.

大佛殿之甍在鏡湖中的倒影.  Reflection of the Great Buddha Hall on the Mirror Pond.

31

32

***************************************************************************************大仏緣起:  根據香取忠彦所著, 穗積和夫插圖之「奈良の大仏―世界最大の鋳造仏」一書, 聖武天皇為了政治上和宗教上的理由於天平十五年(西元743) 在恭仁京(今京都木津川市)頒布詔書, 建立大佛。原來選址在恭仁京的甲賀寺展開, 後來因種種原因, 都城由恭仁京遷回平城京(今奈良), 大佛的建設工程亦移至奈良的山金里(即今東大寺)重新展開(天平十七年, 西元745), 行基法師受命為大僧正, 主理大佛的建造。有些資料說是為了安撫聖武天皇早逝的皇子菩提的忘魂而建。香取忠彦的書亦稍提到政治的原因。如果你有興趣知道更多, 不妨看看日本拍的两集歴史劇「大佛開眼」 (見後連接), 雖然劇中加有很多戲劇原素, 但對當時興建大佛的背景有不錯的介紹。

總而言之, 咸信曾有遣唐使或留唐僧曾一睹龍門奉先寺大佛(13公尺, 7世紀), 故亦希望日本能有巨佛, 奈何平城京附近無巨石窟, 無法造出龍門石窟中的大佛。後來選用金銅鋳造, 是希望佛像能長存後世。到底大佛的高度是怎樣定出的?   據說是這樣的: 1. 傳說佛祖的身高為一丈六尺(約4.8公尺)。一般大寺院的主佛像都是丈六佛, 但坐像實際高度只有八尺, 仍稱丈六佛。比丈六佛大的統稱大佛 ; 2. 南大門上的橫匾寫着大華嚴寺, 顯示東大寺所奉, 華嚴經中以十比無限大, 所以原意要作十倍丈六佛大的大佛, 換言之應為24公尺的坐像, 不過當時用的是古代的周尺, 一尺=~20cm, 20cm X 160=32公尺, 坐佛高度折半, 所以奈良大佛高16公尺。

我一直都想知道當時如何用八世紀的建築、鋳造技術去製造如此大的鍍金銅鋳大佛。 據說當時全日本人口才只有五百萬, 而天平年間的日本並不是處於富強的年代, 如何能投入如此大的人力物力建成大佛, 着實令人費解, 尤其是說勞工不是被勞役的, 是領薪的呢。無論如何, 看看幾个主要物料的數字:

熟銅  739,560斤 (499噸)         白錫 12,618斤(8.5噸)          黃金  10,436両(440公斤)                   水銀  58,620两 (2.5噸)            木柱 1.5公尺直徑X30公尺長   84+根

光是想想那八十多根的巨木如何被伐, 從山上運至河邊, 順木津川南下….的情景, 就覺得不可思議。再想想為大佛鍍金, 沒有電鍍, 靠的是水銀和火力, 光是鍍金那五年中, 到底有多少技師中了水銀毒… 實在是太不可思議!!

I have always been amazed by the size of giant Buddha images (like those in Yungang Grottoes, 5th cent., the one in Kamakura, 13th cent. and this one in Todaiji), and always eager to find out how did they do it with the skill and technology at that time.  According to the book ” The Great Buddha of Nara” by Katori Tadahiko, illustrated by Hozumi Kazuo, the construction of the Great Buddha of Nara was ordered by Emperor  Shomu (聖武天皇 701-756) for political and religious reasons. It is said that they (some of them were Japanese envoys to Tang Dynasty and student monks studied in Tang’s capital city, Xian) wanted to build something similar to the massive Vairocana image in Longmen Grottoes, unfortunately, there were no such geographic terrains available in Nara area, they decided to build with bronze.

Wikipedia:  「The making of the statue was started first in Shigaraki.  After enduring multiple fires and earthquakes, the construction was eventually resumed in Nara in 745, and the Buddha was finally completed in 751. A year later, in 752, the eye-opening ceremony was held with an attendance of 10,000 people to celebrate the completion of the Buddha. The Indian priest Bodhisena performed the eye-opening for Emperor Shōmu. The project nearly bankrupted Japan’s economy, consuming most of the available bronze of the time.」

In his book, Katori Tadahiko has given a detail technological account of how the Buddha was cast and how the hall was built. However, I must confess that it is beyond my imagination. Let’s take a look of the major materials used:

1. Bronze – 739,560 ‘catty’ (499 tons)                  2. Tin –  12,618 ‘catty’ (8.5 tons)                          3. Gold – 10,436 ‘tael’ (440 Kg)                  4. Mercury – 58,620’tael’ (2.5 tons)                             5. Wood – 1.5 m x 30 m  84+pcs

Can you imagine the time and manpower needed just to put together all these materials? Not to mention the logistics support for tens of thousands of workers involved.  Anyway, do your math if interested. A two-episode Japanese TV series called 大仏開眼 (lit. Great Buddha Eye Opening, referring to the eye opening ceremony) gives a dramatic interpretation of the construction of the Great Buddha and the Great Buddha Hall (see links below).

a

南大門  Nandaimon, the Great Southern Gate

dd

木造金剛力士吽形像, 8.4 米。Kongorikishi (Ungyo, made 1203)

南大門內两側有木造金剛力士两尊, 東方為吽形像, 西方阿形像。此乃佛寺之門神, 在中國稱為哼哈二將, 亦有尊稱其為仁王。現在的南大門重建於十二世紀, 據宋朝營造規格。

Kongōrikishi (金剛力士) or Niō (仁王) are two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples all across Asia including China, Japan and Korea  in the form of frightening wrestler-like statues. The existing Nandaimon (Great South Gate) is a reconstruction of end-12th century based on Song Dynasty style. (Wikipedia)

c

木造金剛力士阿形像在維修中. Kongorikishi (Agyō, made 1203) statue being maintained

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南大門 Nandaimon,

Middle gate

中門 Central Gate

Noran, middle gate

中門 Central Gate.

The Great Buddha Hall, from the incense burner at the middle gate

從中門望大佛殿。The Great Buddha Hall, from the incense burner at the central gate.

Beautiful incense burner.

中門香爐。 Incense burner, Central Gate.

Great Buddha Hall (daibutsuden)

金堂(大佛殿)Great Buddha Hall (daibutsuden)

Great Buddha Hall (daibutsuden)

金堂(大佛殿)Great Buddha Hall (daibutsuden), Octagonal Lantern Tower (8th century).

2

The door.

賓頭盧尊者 – 在大佛殿的外側, 有一木造坐像, 說明上寫着是賓頭盧尊者 (木造, 江户時代, 十八世紀)。尊者乃十六羅漢神通首座, 以神通著名, 獅子吼第一。在日本, 信眾認為只要用手摸擦尊者像的某部, 然後再摸擦自身對應的部份, 就有治病療傷之效。因此在日本, 寺院伽藍本堂前常奉尊者塑像, 供善信摸擦。

Bizuru – Sitting next to the entrance is this statue of Binzuru (wood, Edo Period, 18th cent). Binzuru (Pindola Bharadvaja) was one of the sixteen arachats, who were disciples of the Buddha. Pindola is said to have excelled the mastery of occult power. It is commonly believed in Japan that when a person rubs a part of the image of Binzuru and then rubs the corresponding part of his own body, his ailment there will disappear.

rubing the corresponding part of the statue would heal the ailment ....

賓頭盧尊者。 Binzuru (Pindola Bharadvaja).

Incense burner outside the Great Buddha Hall.

大仏殿前的大香爐. Incense burner outside the Great Buddha Hall.

Followers wipe the incense smoke to their bodies to be blessed

信眾入殿前將煙撥向頭身, 據說有淨身之意, 同時亦有佛陀庇佑, 治病療傷。 Followers scoop up incense smoke and direct it over their bodies. It is believed that it would cleanse their bodies and to heal any ailment.

Tidy oneself up before entering the Great Buddha Hall

Before entering the Great Buddha Hall

佛 – 毘盧遮那佛 (Piluzhenafo), 盧舍那佛大日如來 (Dari Rulai, 日音Dainichi Nyorai) 毘盧遮那仏,  Birushana-butsu。  下為 Wikipedia資料 :

毗盧遮那佛(Vairocana),意為照耀,是光明遍照的意思,唐朝實叉那陀譯《八十華嚴》採用此譯名。但東晉佛陀跋陀羅譯出的《六十華嚴》,譯為盧舍那。原出自《華嚴經》,但因譯音不同,造成後世各佛教宗派對它有不同的解釋。華嚴宗認為毗盧遮那佛為報身佛,是蓮華藏世界的教主。天台宗認為毗盧遮那佛是法身佛,盧舍那佛為報身佛,釋迦牟尼佛為應化身佛。密宗則認為毗盧遮那佛為至高的唯一法身佛,金剛界的根本。他是密教最大本尊。因為譯名不同,造成佛教內部不同學派,對毗盧遮那佛的解釋也不盡相同:

各派見解

  • 華嚴宗據此認為:毗盧遮那與盧舍那分別為音譯的全稱和略稱。“毗盧遮那”為報身佛,是《華嚴經》所說蓮華藏世界(佛報身之淨土)的教主。
  • 天台宗以毗盧遮那佛為法身佛、盧舍那佛為報身佛、釋迦牟尼佛為應身佛。
  • 法相宗與上述解釋相同,但所尊稱略有不同。法相宗以毗盧遮那佛為自性身,盧舍那佛為受用身、釋迦牟尼佛為變化身。
  • 密宗視毗盧遮那佛即“大日如來”(摩訶毗盧遮那,梵文Mahāvairocana)為理智不二的法身佛,為密宗尊奉的主尊之一。

The Great Buddha – Vairocana (大日如来 Dainichi Nyorai,  毘盧遮那仏 Birushana-butsu ), Wikipedia :

Vairocana (also Vairochana or Mahāvairocana, Sanskrit: वैरोचन) is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Bliss Body of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama). In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Buddhism, Vairocana is also seen as the embodiment of the Buddhist concept of Emptiness. In the conception of the Five Wisdom Buddhas of Vajrayana Buddhism, Vairocana is at the centre and is considered a Primordial Buddha. The Vairocana statue in Nara’s Tōdai-ji in Japan was the largest bronze image of Vairocana Buddha in the world. The larger of the monumental statues that were destroyed at Bamyan in Afghanistan was also a depiction of Vairocana. The Spring Temple Buddha of Lushan County, Henan, China, with a height of 126 meters, is now the tallest Vairocana Buddha statue, as well as the tallest statue in the world.

The Great Buddha

毘盧遮那仏 The Great Buddha – Vairocana

Replica of the lotus petal at the base of the statue.

蓮花瓣的複製品。 Replica of the petals of the lotus pedestal.

↑↓   大佛所坐的蓮花座, 由向上和向下的花瓣層組成, 上面所示是向上花瓣層的複製品。花瓣上雕刻了蓮華藏世界的圖畫。蓮華藏世界就是華嚴經所說的世界。上面照片只示出二十六橫線的中千世界和以上部份。上方坐在正中央的是釋迦如來, 掌管中千世界。釋迦如來周圍伴着二十二位菩薩。下圖是我製作的說明:

華嚴經的世界。Lotus-Matrix World-System.

華嚴經的世界。Lotus-Matrix World-System.

↑↓ The petals of lotus pedestal on the Great Buddha Vairocana is seated are incised in hairline engraving with identical designs, dating from the Nara period (8th cent.), which depict the “Lotus-Matrix World-System” (Jp. Rengezo sekai). The upper half depicts a seated Tathagata in the center who is expounding the  Dharma and flanked on each side by a group of eleven Bodhisattvas. In the lower half there are twenty-six horizontal lines with small Buddha-images and palaces arrayed between them.  Stated simply, this complex design may be described as a pictorial representation of the religious world view set forth in the Avatamsaka-sutra (Jp. Kegon-kyo)

如來坐中央, 四周菩薩圍繞。Tathagata is flanked by bodhisattvas.

13

虛空藏菩薩 + 毘盧遮那佛。 Kokuuzo  bosatsu + Vairocana

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虛空藏菩薩。 Kokuuzo bosatsu

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毘盧遮那佛。Vairocana

16

西方廣目天王, 四大護法天王之一。 Koumoku-ten (Virapaksa)

17

北方多聞天王, 四大護法天王之一, 亦即毘沙門。Vaisravana

18

如意輪觀音 Nyoirin Kannon

20

多聞天王 Vaisravana

21

多聞天王 Vaisravana

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多聞天王 Vaisravana

The Great Buddha Hall rebuilt in 1180.

公元1180年重建大佛殿 (模型)。 The Great Buddha Hall rebuilt in 1180 (model).

Inside the Buddha Hall rebuilt 1180.

1180年大佛殿 (模型)。 The Buddha Hall rebuilt 1180 (model).

The model of current building which was rebuilt in 1709.

公元1709年重建大佛殿 (模型)。The model of current building which was rebuilt in 1709.

22

江户時期 増長天王(左)和持國天王頭像. The heads of Jikokuten (Sk. Dhrtarastra, right) and Zochoten (Sk. Virudhaka), Edo period, 18th cent.

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在東大寺逛至下午快三點, 怱忙趕到這裡吃中飯, 都快到休息時間了, 還是有老饕在排隊。

This restaurant is so famous that even when we arrived at around 3pm, close to their closing time, there was still a line waiting to get in.

1

志津香釜飯- 人氣餐廳 A popular restaurant.

P1080057

魚釜飯套餐- 季節の釜めし Season limitation

套餐- 季節の釜めし Season limitation

P1080056

套餐- 季節の釜めし/奈良七種釜のし(かき入)  Season limitation- Nara-nanashu kamameshi with oyster

2

 奈良七種釜飯, 有蠔, 虾, 鰻等. Karameshi with oyster, shrimp, eel,etc

3

如没記錯, 應該是鯖魚吧。 If my memory serves me well, this was a dish of pickled mackerel. 

4

炊き合せ (日式煑菜拼盆) Simmered dishes

5

赤出し(紅味噌湯)   Red miso soup

6

季節のフル一ツ (時令水果)  Fruit

What a wonderful day !

用老妻的照片將這美好的一天劃上完美句號!  What a wonderful day !

更多資訊  More information:

香取忠彦著, 穗積和夫插圖 「奈良の大仏―世界最大の鋳造仏」一書中譯本, 李道道譯, 2007, 馬可孛羅文化。

Katori Tadahiko et al, Nara No Daibutsu (Nara’s Great Buddha, in Japanese), published by Soshisha, Tokyo (1981)

奈良東大寺

Wikipedia – Todaiji

【大佛开眼 第1集 日语中字】

【大佛开眼 第2集(完结)】

志津香釜飯 Shizuka

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