葛飾北斎画展 Hokusai Exhibition – 1
波士頓美術館收藏日本美術品甚豐, 葛飾北斎的版画更是不少, 2015年4月至8月初有一盛大展覧, 數量比送到日本展出的葛飾北斎画展還要多。五月初的一个周末, 春光明媚, 美術館日本花園的垂櫻正盛開, 我們也就來湊湊熱鬧。我最爱北斎的漫画, 把草根人物畫得活靈活現, 在版画上, 喜歡他的構圖 (猜想這也是其最為西方接受的原因)。我最愛的日本版画家卻是川瀬巴水, 喜歡他營造的傳統但浪漫的氣氛。網上有關北斎的資料很多, 所以就抄些維基百科的資料(無版權限制)給朋友看看。最下面網頁連接有两篇波士頓環球報的相関文章, 尤其是有關傳奇人物 William Sturgis Bigelow (1850–1926) 醫生的故事(波士頓美術館收藏北斎的作品主要是他在日搜購和無償捐給美術館的) 的故事, 可讀性高。
維基百科 – 葛飾北斎（ 日语：葛飾 北斎／かつしか ほくさい 1760年10月31日－1849年5月10日），本名中岛时太郎，1760年生於江戶（現東京），是日本江戶時代后期的浮世繪師，日本化政文化的代表人物。他14歲學雕版印刷，18歲便和另一位浮世繪師勝川春章學畫，開始了自己漫長且多產的畫畫生涯——但葛飾卻是等到了60歲以後才開始出名的。1826年，為了配合當時的日本內地旅遊業的發展（多半也因為個人對富士山的情有獨鐘），北斋以富士山不同角度的樣貌為題，創作了《富嶽三十六景》一系列的風景畫，因而遠近馳名，其中以《赤富士》和《神奈川沖浪裏》最為知名。
Museum of Fine Arts Boston is known to have a handsome collection of Japanese art outside Japan. Currently there is a comprehensive exhibition of the works of Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849). As a matter of fact, MFA had its first Hokusai exhibition in 1892-93, the first anywhere in the world. He is one of my favorite Japanese artists, I love his manga (漫画) of the grassroots. Online info about Hokusai’s art are abundant, so I just copied some from Wikipedia and posted here for my friends convenience. I have also posted some more links at the end. Two of them are articles from Boston Globe, I love the one “Seeing Hokusai in Boston? Thank this eccentric Brahmin” which tells the story of legendary William Sturgis Bigelow (1850–1926).
Wikipedia – Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾 北斎, October 31, 1760 (exact date questionable) – May 10, 1849) was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period. He was influenced by such painters as Sesshu, and other styles of Chinese painting. Born in Edo (now Tokyo), Hokusai is best known as author of the woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (富嶽三十六景 Fugaku Sanjūroku-kei, c. 1831) which includes the internationally recognized print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, created during the 1820s. Hokusai created the “Thirty-Six Views” both as a response to a domestic travel boom and as part of a personal obsession with Mount Fuji. It was this series, specifically The Great Wave print and Fuji in Clear Weather, that secured Hokusai’s fame both in Japan and overseas.
這次展品超過二百件, 由於是美術館的藏品, 容許拍照。只是展品多, 人也多, 所以我們只在不影响其他觀賞者的情况下, 隨意拍了些。這一輯先放不同性質和題材的作品, 第二輯是「富嶽三十六景」的部份, 由於人太多, 無法拍完。
It is said that the exhibition consists of more than two hundred pieces of prints and paintings. Photography was allowed, without using flash, of course. We had no intention to block the view of our fellow viewers, so I brought a 100mm lens, but still…. In this post, I put up the paintings and some woodblock prints. Except the following two, most of the Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji will be posted in part II.
富嶽三十六景 : 這裡先放上两張, 也是最為世人稱頌的两張。國人對其作品評價不一定很高, 也許是因為國人看画重筆墨, 對這種「匠氣」重的口味没有太喜歡吧。我不懂筆墨, 所以看得很過癮。
↓ 凱風快晴 ↓ Fuji in Clear Weather
↑ Fukusa, silk gift wrap with mythological lion, painted, ink and colors, 1844.
It is interesting to note that Hoksai’s mythological lions shares striking similarity with the lions on the Karamon gate, built 1618, in Nishihonganji, Kyoto.
←↓ 大原女図 1810-1820. 水墨着色 掛軸。
←↓ Woman from Ohara carrying bundles of firewood, 1810-1820. Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk.
Woman from the village of Ohara, north of Kyoto, came to sell goods in the streets of the ancient capital, carrying their merchandise on top of their heads. Considered one of the famous sights of the city, they were readily identifiable by their ikat-dyed kimono, cloth leggings, and fingerless gloves. They appeared as characters in kabuki plays and were also immortalized in poetry. (大原女Woman from Ohara)
(“Jidai Matsuri 2009 326” by Corpse Reviver)
←↓ 詩哥冩真鏡 – 李白, ~1833, 錦絵。
圖中李白觀瀑, 两小書童聯手環抱詩人, 防其醉步跌入瀑中。
←↓ Li Bai – A True Mirror of Chinese and Japanese Poetry, about 1833.
Li Bai gazing at the waterfall of Mount Lu. Woodblock print (nishiki-e): ink and color on paper.
The two servant boys seem to cling on the master to prevent him from toppling into the waterfall.
←↓ 李白觀瀑圖- 水墨掛軸, 1849年。此掛軸與上圖類似, 只是抱着李白的小書童只有一人。
根據美術館說明, 這應該是根據李白【望廬山瀑布】詩而作的: 日照香爐生紫煙，遙看瀑布掛長川。飛流直下三千尺，疑是銀河落九天。
←↓ Li Bai Admiring a Waterfall, 1849.Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk.
Li Bai (701-762) is considered one of the greatest Chinese poets of all time. His famous quatrain on the waterfall at Mount Lu reads: Sunlight streams on the river stones. From high above, the river steadily plunges three thousand feet of the sparkling water- the Milky Way pouring down from heaven,
各省瀑布巡禮 (諸国滝廻り), ~1832.
A Tour of Waterfalls in Various Provinces, ~1832.
下野黒髪山きりふりの滝 – きりふり即降霧之意, 「下野黑髮山霧降滝」。此瀑布是日光地區三大名瀑布之一。
The Falling Mist waterfall at Mount Kurokami in Shimotsuke Province.
The Kirifuri (“Falling Mist”) is one of the three most famous waterfalls in the vicinity of Nikko.
木曽路ノ奥阿弥陀ヶ瀧 – 據說曾有僧人在圓孔處見阿弥陀佛, 故名之。下圖是Wikipedia 的照片, 對比着看, 很有意思。
The Amida Falls in the Far Reaches of the Kisokaido Road. This impressive sixty-meter waterfall was named for the vision of Amida Buddha once seen here by a priest.
Bon Odori (盆踊り)~1810, 摺物（すりもの）。 盆踊り是日本人在孟蘭盆節時跳的舞蹈, 原來是佛教儀式, 由僧人發展而來。此圖長且窄的形式, 方便懸掛在柱子上。
Bon Festival Dance, ~1810. Woodblock print (surimono); ink and color on paper.
Held in summer today, but early fall in Hokusai’s time,the Bon festival features cheerful group dancing by all participants, to welcome the spirits of the dead when they return to earth for a brief visit.
This unusual work is in the vertical”pillar print” format, suitable for hanging on one of the pillars between the wall panels of a Japanese house. It deliberately uses traditional Asian perspective- with distant object placed higher in the picture plane- to give a clear view of each figure in the group of dancers.
鳳凰図屏風, 1835。專家認為北斎採用西方技巧溶入画中, 利用不同深淺色調以增加立體感。
Eight-panel folding screen(Hō-ō zu Byōbu); ink, color, cut gold-leaf, and sprinkled gold on paper, 1835. Expert said that Hokusai had incorporated western techniques, like using different shades of the same color to create a more 3D feel.
↓ 花菖蒲に鯉, ~1808-13, 版画(錦絵)。
↓ Carp and Iris,~1808-13 Woodblock print (nishiki-e), ink and color on paper.
↓ 伊勢物語, ~1808-13, 版画(錦絵), 伊勢物語第六回。
↓ The Akuta River Episode from Tales of Ise, ~1808-13. Woodblok print (nishiki-e), ink and color on paper. The scene depicted is from Episode 6 of the classic work Tales of Ise.
↑↓ 丹霞燒佛图, ~1804-18年, 水墨摺扇。此画描述唐朝丹霞禅師在一寒夜將木佛像劈成柴生火取暖。當被問及何以敢大逆不道, 焚燒佛像。丹霞答道: “是為了取得舍利子。” “但你怎能從木頭中取得舍利子?” 丹霞答道: “哦, 既然那只是一塊木頭, 又怎麽不能用之生火取暖呢?”
↑↓ Zen Priest Danxia Burning a Buddhist Image~1804-18. Folding fan; ink and color on mica-coated paper. Zen stories and paintings include many scenes of eccentric, paradoxical behavior by Zen masters who seem foolish but are actually wise. on a cold night the Chinese priest Danxia of the Tang dynasty chopped up a wooden image of the Buddha to make a fire. When asked why he did such a shocking thin, he said,”To obtain sacred relics of the Buddha’s body.” “But you can’t get relics from a piece of wood.” “If it is only a piece of wood, why not burn it?”
↓人物絵手本, 1830年代, 水墨紙本。相信此乃北齋授徒所作之手稿, 解釋如何在活潑的動作中令人物保持平衡。
↓ Sketch of Figures Prepared for Instruction of a Pupil, 1830s, ink on paper. In words and pictures, the master explains to an unidentified pupil his method for drawing figures that remain balanced even while performing energetic actions, such as the dance moves here.
↓ 護国寺達磨略图, 1804。 水墨掛軸。北斎画達磨像略图, 連他人之紀述, 裱成掛軸, 紀念北斎於1804年春在江户(今東京)護国寺當眾寫一 48呎 x 66呎 之達磨像。據稱當時用墨14加侖云云。
↓ Picture of Daruma Painted at Gokoku-ji, 1804. Hanging scroll; ink on paper. The modest sketch by Hokusai, mounted with explanatory texts by his admirers, records one of the master artist’s most amazing feats; his painting of a gigantic image of Daruma, the founder of Zen Buddhism, before a large audience at the temple of gokoku-ji in Edo in the spring of 1804. …the painting measured about 66′ by 48′, and used over fourteen gallons of ink; brooms and straw sacking were used as brushes.
↓ 唐子八齢, 八十六歲卍筆、九十八翁花井白叟書。1845, 掛軸, 水墨着色。此作乃由九十八歲的花井白叟題字, 北齋作画的作品。
↓ The Character “Long Life” and Chinese Boys, 1845. Hanging scroll; ink and color on paper. This charming work is a collaboration between Hokusai and an even more long-lived friend, Hanai Hakuso, who did the calligraphy.
↓朱鍾馗圖幟, ~1805. 繪幟, 色墨於棉布上。這種旗幟傳統上用來裝飾「端午の節句」 (應是農曆五月五日舉行, Tango no Sekku), 現代稱之為こどもの日 (兒童節 Kodomo no Hi), 在陽曆五月五日舉行。
↓ Zhong Kui (Shoki in Japanese), the Demon Queller, ~1805. Banner, color with ink on cotton. Large banners such as this one were traditional holiday decorations for the Tango Festival (also known as Boys’ Day or Feast of Banners).
↓ 北齋一生多次画鍾馗, 這題材對他有特殊意義。在他出道初期, 北齋以畵養家困難之際, 當時得一委托繪画鍾馗旗幟, 得潤金解燃眉之急, 亦令其繼續以画師為業。
↓ Hokusai painted Shoki many times through his life, and the theme may have had special meaning for him. In his early years, struggling desperately to support his family he received a commission for a Shoki banner like this one. The much-needed payment encourage him to continue as an artist rather than look for another career.
↓ 鍾馗, 掛軸。很多時用紅色画鍾馗, 咸信可郤病擋災。
↓ Zong Kui (Shoki), the Demon Queller, 1811. Hanging scroll, red ink on paper…. They were sometimes painted in red ink because red was considered a lucky color that could avert disease.
三曲合奏图, 葛飾 応為, 1818-44。水墨着色絲軸。
下面這張画十分特別, 並不是北齋作品, 而是他女兒 葛飾 応為 (活躍於1818-1854後) 的大作。江戶時期女画家雖然不多, 但仍然有能打响名堂的,葛飾 応為為其中佼佼者。
Katsushika Oi (葛飾 応為), active about 1818-after 1854.Three Woman Playing Musical Instruments, 1818-44, Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk.
During the Edo period, woman artists were rare but not unknown. Usually it was through family connections that they became artists in the first place, as in the case of Hokusai’s third daughter Oei, who used the art name Katsushika Oi (葛飾 応為). Katsushika Oi was a Japanese Ukiyo-e artist of the late 19th century Edo period.Not only did Ōi work as a production assistant to her father, but she was also an accomplished painter in her own right.
↓ 鏡面美人図, 1805。掛軸, 水墨, 雲毋, 着色絲軸。
↓ Woman looking at herself in a mirror, 1805. Hanging scroll; ink, color, gold, and mica on silk
↓ 雪月花 – 淀川, 1833
↓ Moonlight on the Yodo River( 淀川, Yodo-gawa). 1833 . The Yodo River was much-traveled waterway linking Kyoto and Osaka, with heavy boat traffic carrying both cargo and passengers, even after sunset. Located toward the Kyoto end of the river. Yodo Castle is a ruin today but was still partly intact in Hokusai’s time.
↓ Snow on the Sumida River. The Sumida River in Edo was considered especially beautiful in snow.
諸国名橋奇览 Remarkable views of Bridges in Various Provinces:
↓ ゑちぜんふくゐの橋, 1834.
↓ Fukui Bridge in Echizen Province. Woodblock print (nishiki-e); ink and color on paper, about 1834.
↓ 足利行道山くものかけはし The hanging-cloud Bridge at Mount Gyodo near Ashikaga.
↓ 飛越の堺つりはし The suspension bridge on the border of Hido and Etchu Province.
↓ 渡辺の源吾綱 猪の熊入道雷雲: 渡辺の源吾綱是十世紀時一武將, 是源 頼光的家臣。傳說他可以戰勝超自然的怪物, 在江户時期漫画裡的英雄, 甚至現代幻想小說的主角。
↓ Watanabe no Gengo Tsuna and Inokuma Nyudo Raiun. Watanabe no Tsuna was a historical warrior of the 10th century, a retainer of Minamoto Yorimitsu (Raiko). Like his master, he became a legendary figure who was said to have battled supernatural monsters as well as human enemies. He was a popular character in Edo-period fiction and drama and appears in manga anime, and fantasy novels even today.
↓ 源賴朝公富士の倨野牧狩 , ~1798, 摺物.
有透視的版画: 日本美術家在1740年代接觸到透視, 北斎在1780年代學得西洋的消失點透視, 並應用在他設計的某些場景上。
Perspective Pictures: As a young artist in the 1780s, Hokusai learned the techniques of Western-style vanishing-point perspective, with receding lines converging at the horizon, by designing prints that showed Japanese scenes rendered in this exotic foreign style, known to Japanese artists since the 1740s.
↓ 浦島龍宫入之圖, 1780年代後期 : 描述漁民浦島 太郎拯救海龜, 被龍王請入龍宮, 並和公主發生戀情的故事。圖中龍宫佈局和人物衣著有中式的味道。
↓ Urashima Taro Visits the Dragon Palace, from the series Newly Published Perspecive Pictures, late 1780s, Woodblock print (nishi-e), ink and color on paper. Signature:Katsu Shunro ga. As a reward for saving the life of turtle, the Japanese fisherman Urashima Taro was invited to visit the palace of the Dragon King under the sea, where he enjoyed a romantic interlude with the Dragon Princess.
↓ The Gate of the Guardian Kings at Kinryuzan Temple, from the series Newly Published Perspective Pictures, 1780s. Woodblock print (nishiki-e), ink and color on paper. Signature:Katsu Shunro ga. The Gate of the Guardian Kings was usually the first gate building in a temple complex; but at Kinryuzan Temple (also called Senso-ji) in Asakusa, the oldest and most famous Buddhist temple in Edo, it was the second gate.
↓ The Story of Minamoto Yoshitsune and Jorui-hime from the series Perspective Pictures, late 1780s. Woodblock print(nishiki-e) ink and color on paper. Signature: Katsu Shunro ga
↓ Fan Kuai and the Banquet at Hongmen, from the series Newly Published Perspective Pictures, later 1780s. Woodblock print (nishiki-e), ink and color on paper. This perspective print brings to life a famous incident in Chinese history, the Banquet at Hongmen in 206BC.
↓ 吉原遊廓の景, 約1808-13, 錦絵。是五張合一的設計, 描絵吉原遊廓內準備盛讌的場面。
↓ Interior of a House in the Yoshiwara, about 1808-13. Woodblock print (nishiki-e); ink and color on paper. In a palatial courtesan house in the licensed Yoshiwara pleasure district in Edo, preparations are being made for a banquet later in the day. This is Hokusai’s only multi-sheet design, a total of five sheets.
↓ 以下是 「百人一首姥がゑとき」系列之一幅, 根據美術館的說明, “姥がゑとき” 是 “explained by a nurse”, 我覺得怪怪的, 查大英博物館, 其藏品的說明亦用nurse 一字, 這些大博物館研究員都是專家, 姥=nurse 还是不懂。這詩是描述五獵人在深山荒屋旁, 雪中生火取暖的場景。
↓ No. 28 in Hokusai’s final series of prints, ‘One hundred poems by one hundred poets explained by a nurse’ (百人一首姥がゑとき Hyakunin isshu uba ga etoki), begun in his seventy-sixth year. Poem by Minamoto no Muneyui Ason 1836. In a deserted, empty village, a group of five hunters gathers around a bonfire made of branches and scraps of wood. The contrast between friendly warmth of the fire and the chilly sadness of the abandoned building at the right invites our own personal interpretation.
↓ お岩さん The ghost of Oiwa, 1831
↓ 「さらやしき」 A woman ghost appeared from a well.
↓ こはだ小平二。小平二的鬼魂, 出自1803年的小說, 是歌舞伎常演的題材。講述小平二為不忠妻子與情人提害。就在一炎夏夜裡, 小平二的鬼魂從蚊帳上爬下來向奸夫滛婦索命, 頸上仍掛着一串佛珠。
The Ghost of Kohada Koheiji. from the series One Hundred Ghost Stories (Hyaku monogatari). about 1831–32. In an 1803 novel and several kabuki plays based on it, Kohada Hoheiji was murdered by his treacherous wife and her lover. On a hot summer night, his ghost claws down the mosquito netting surrounding the bed and looms over the guilty couple in the form of a decomposing corpse, with a Buddhist rosary still hanging around his neck.