北京天壇 Temple of Heaven, Beijing

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2016年10月 北京      October 2016, Beijing, China

維基百科: 北京天壇位於北京市東城區,是明清兩朝帝王祭天、祈穀和祈雨的場所。是現存中國古代規模最大、倫理等級最高的祭祀建築群。1961年,天壇被中華人民共和國國務院公布為第一批全國重點文物保護單位之一。1998年,「北京皇家祭壇—天壇」被列為世界文化遺產。

Wikipedia: The Temple of Heaven (Chinese: 天壇; pinyin: Tiāntán; Manchu: Abkai mukdehun) is an imperial complex of religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of central Beijing. The complex was visited by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest. It has been regarded as a Taoist temple, although Chinese heaven worship, especially by the reigning monarch of the day, predates Taoism.

The temple complex was constructed from 1406 to 1420 during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, who was also responsible for the construction of the Forbidden City in Beijing. The complex was extended and renamed Temple of Heaven during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in the 16th century.

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A model was posing for a group of photographers.

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維基百科: 被兩重壇牆分隔成內壇和外壇,形似「回」字。兩重壇牆的南側轉角皆為直角,北側轉角皆為圓弧形,象徵著「天圓地方」,俗稱「天地牆」。外壇牆周長6553米,原本只在西牆上開闢祈穀壇門和圜丘壇門,1949年後又陸續新建了東門和北門,並把內壇南面的昭亨門改為南門。

祈年殿在天壇的北部,位於祈谷壇中央,原名大祈殿、大享殿,始建於明永樂十八年(1420年),是天壇最早的建築物。乾隆十六年(1751年)修繕後,改名為祈年殿。光緒十五年(1889年)毀於雷火,數年後按原樣重建。目前的祈年殿是一座直徑32.72米的圓形建築,鎏金寶頂藍瓦三重檐攢尖頂,層層收進,總高38米。

Wikipedia: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests (祈年殿) is a magnificent triple-gabled circular building, 36 meters in diameter and 38 meters tall, built on three levels of marble stone base, where the Emperor prayed for good harvests. The building is completely wooden, with no nails. The original building was burned down by a fire caused by lightning in 1889. The current building was re-built several years after the incident.

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The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests.

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祈年殿建築細節       Architectural details of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests.

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維基百科: 祈年殿的內部結構比較獨特,不用大梁和長檁,僅用沉香木柱[3]和枋桷相互銜接支撐屋頂。光緒年間重建後殿內有楠木柱二十八根,數目排列切合天象:中央4根龍柱高19.2米、直徑1.2米,象徵四季,中圈12根金柱象徵一年十二個月,外層12根巨柱象徵一天十二個時辰,中層和外層相加象徵二十四節氣,三層柱總共28根象徵二十八宿。殿內地板的正中是一塊圓形大理石,帶有天然的龍鳳花紋,與殿頂的蟠龍藻井和四周彩繪金描的龍鳳和璽圖案相互呼應,使整座殿堂顯得十分富麗堂皇。

 

 

 

 

16108002666.jpgThe Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests has four inner, twelve middle and twelve outer pillars, representing the four seasons, twelve months

and twelve traditional Chinese hours respectively. Combined together, the twelve middle and twelve outer pillars represent the traditional solar terms.

All the buildings within the Temple have special dark blue roof tiles, representing the Heaven.

 

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祈年殿的殿座就是圓形的祈穀壇,三層6米高,氣勢巍峨。壇周有矮牆一重,東南角設燔柴爐、瘞坎、燎爐和具服台。壇北有皇乾殿,面闊五間,原先放置祖先神牌,後來牌位移至太廟。壇邊還有祈年門、神庫、神廚、宰牲亭、走牲路和長廊等附屬建築。長廊南面的廣場上有七星石,是嘉靖年間放置的鎮石。

Wikipedia: Symbolism – Inside the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests.

Earth was represented by a square and Heaven by a circle; several features of the temple complex symbolize the connection of Heaven and Earth, of circle and square. The whole temple complex is surrounded by two cordons of walls; the outer wall has a taller, semi-circular northern end, representing Heaven, and a shorter, rectangular southern end, representing the Earth. Both the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests and the Circular Mound Altar are round, each standing on a square yard, again representing Heaven and Earth.

Park

The surrounding park is quite extensive, with the entire complex totaling 267 hectares (660 acres). Some of it consists of playgrounds, exercise and game areas. These facilities are well used by adults, as well as by parents and grandparents bringing children to play. Some of the open spaces and side buildings are often used, particularly in the morning, for choral shows, ethnic dances, and other presentations.

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This entry was posted in Architecture 建築, Beijing 北京, China 中國, Temple 廟, Travel 旅遊 and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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