⇑⇓ 這些是真正的漁民在作業, 因他們用的是尼龍漁網, 不用傳統的錐形圓網(只有表演者用)。
⇑⇓ These are the real fishermen. They are using nylon fishing nets instead of the traditional fishing cones.
⇑⇓ 出家剃度儀式, 就像在仰金大金塔所見的一樣, 不過在茵萊湖上自然是用船行進了。
⇑⇓ Shinlaung hlè pwe (ရှင်လောင်းလှည့်ပွဲ, procession), part of Shinbyu (Novitiation ceremony) , similar to what we’ve seen in Yagon, except that this is by boat.
⇑⇓ Exploration of the stilt house village.
⇑⇓ Building a new house.
⇑ Appeared to be a ceremonial boat.
⇑ Leg-rowers ⇑ 本地特色-脚划船
水上菜園 Floating Gardens:
在湖上作業的人們主要是漁民, 其中有幾位在近岸的地方在湖底挖沉積的淤泥, 放在船上運走, 猜想他們是在近岸淺灘堆積成稍高於水面的”耕地”, 用竹、木枝固定, 多種植番茄和瓜類。研究發現, 水上菜園對生態有負面影响, 尤其是殺虫劑和肥料的使用更是雪上加霜, 據說茵萊鯉魚的數量在遞減中 (Su and Jassby 2000, 見後面連結) 。
These folks were scooping up the sediment from the bottom of Inle Lake, I believe these blocks would be stacked up to form what is called a “floating garden”. Floating gardens is said to have been introduced in the 1960s, before that time agriculture was practiced in the wetlands around the lake. Research has found that the infilling of the lake with sediment is threatening the ecosystem of the lake. The use of pesticides and fertilizers complicated the matter further. For example, the populations of Inle carp (Cyprinus carpio intha) had been declining due to decreased water clarity levels associated with suspended sediment and eutrophication (Su and Jassby 2000).
⇓ 從我們湖邊的酒店坐船要通過一段長的水道才可以到達外面開放的水域。水道两旁有” 土堤” , 長滿了草, 應該是kaing草吧, 水道两旁堆滿台湾叫布袋蓮, 香港稱豬乸蓮(喻其強勁的繁值力)的水生植物 。這種植物會淤塞航道, 令水的含氧量低, 阻碍魚類生長。這原產於南美亞瑪遜的布袋蓮, 已成功分佈全世界。在台湾, 河流的布袋蓮流至河口, 纏在岸邊蚵(蠔) 田的木棍上腐爛, 殺害蚵苗。半死的布袋蓮根和葉漂出海, 令漁民不敢在附近撒網捕魚, 因為魚網会被破壞。由於花朵漂亮, 生長容易, 有人會在園子裡用缸栽植觀賞, 到太多時就棄於附近溪流, 令問題惡化。據說台湾每年用於清理河道布袋蓮的費用已達一億台幣。
⇓ Common water hyacinth is excessively common here in Inle Lake, this Amazon native is considered to be a problematic invasive species. The abundance of water hyacinth is not a good sign, it is considered an ecological plague, suffocating the lake, diminishing the fish reservoir. As a matter of fact, it has already successfully invaded most of the fresh water ecosystem in the whole world. (Wikipedia)
⇑ Attending the floating garden.
⇑⇓ Tomato plants 番茄
延伸閱讀: 茵萊湖的泥沙沉降量嚴重, 上世紀60年代開始的水上菜園的作業方式带來負面影响。 茵萊湖面積日降, 魚類減少, 有興趣的朋友可看看這篇論文。
Reference: Inle Lake has been “shrinking” drastically, for those who are interested to read further, this is a good research publication available online.
Roy C. Sidle Æ Alan D. Ziegler Æ John B. Vogler,
Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science and Springer 2007. Sustain Sci DOI 10.1007/s11625-006-0020-7